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View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, Vol. 3   By: (1777-1859)

Book cover

First Page:

VIEW

OF

THE STATE OF EUROPE

DURING

THE MIDDLE AGES.

BY HENRY HALLAM, LL.D., F.R.A.S.,

FOREIGN ASSOCIATE OF THE INSTITUTE OF FRANCE.

IN THREE VOLUMES. VOL. III.

NEW EDITION.

LONDON:

JOHN MURRAY, ALBEMARLE STREET.

1860.

The right of Translation is reserved.

PRINTED BY W. CLOWES AND SONS, STAMFORD STREET AND CHARING CROSS.

CONTENTS

OF

THE THIRD VOLUME.

CHAPTER VIII.

PART III.

THE ENGLISH CONSTITUTION.

Reign of Edward I. Confirmatio Chartarum Constitution of Parliament the Prelates the temporal Peers Tenure by Barony its Changes Difficulty of the Subject Origin of Representation of the Commons Knights of Shires their Existence doubtfully traced through the Reign of Henry III. Question whether Representation was confined to Tenants in capite discussed State of English Towns at the Conquest and afterwards their Progress Representatives from them summoned to Parliament by Earl of Leicester Improbability of an earlier Origin Cases of St. Albans and Barnstaple considered Parliaments under Edward I. Separation of Knights and Burgesses from the Peers Edward II. Gradual Progress of the Authority of Parliament traced through the reigns of Edward III. and his Successors down to Henry IV. Privilege of Parliament the early Instances of it noticed Nature of Borough Representation Rights of Election other Particulars relative to Election House of Lords Baronies by Tenure by Writ Nature of the latter discussed Creation of Peers by Act of Parliament and by Patent Summons of Clergy to Parliament King's Ordinary Council its Judicial and other Power Character of the Plantagenet Government Prerogative its Excesses erroneous Views corrected Testimony of Sir John Fortescue to the Freedom of the Constitution Causes of the superior Liberty of England considered State of Society in England Want of Police Villenage its gradual Extinction Latter Years of Henry VI. Regencies Instances of them enumerated Pretensions of the House of York, and War of the Roses Edward IV. Conclusion. Page 1

NOTES TO CHAPTER VIII., PART III. 204

CHAPTER IX.

ON THE STATE OF SOCIETY IN EUROPE DURING THE MIDDLE AGES.

PART I.

Introduction Decline of Literature in the latter Period of the Roman Empire Its Causes Corruption of the Latin Language Means by which it was effected Formation of new Languages General Ignorance of the Dark Ages Scarcity of Books Causes that prevented the total Extinction of Learning Prevalence of Superstition and Fanaticism General Corruption of Religion Monasteries their Effects Pilgrimages Love of Field Sports State of Agriculture of Internal and Foreign Trade down to the end of the Eleventh Century Improvement of Europe dated from that Age. 268

PART II.

Progress of Commercial Improvement in Germany, Flanders, and England in the North of Europe in the Countries upon the Mediterranean Sea Maritime Laws Usury Banking Companies Progress of Refinement in Manners Domestic Architecture Ecclesiastical Architecture State of Agriculture in England Value of Money Improvement of the Moral Character of Society its Causes Police Changes in Religious Opinion Various Sects Chivalry its Progress, Character, and Influence Causes of the Intellectual Improvement of European Society 1. The Study of Civil Law 2. Institution of Universities their Celebrity Scholastic Philosophy 3. Cultivation of Modern Languages Proven├žal Poets Norman Poets French Prose Writers Italian early Poets in that Language Dante Petrarch English Language its Progress Chaucer 4. Revival of Classical Learning Latin Writers of the Twelfth Century Literature of the Fourteenth Century Greek Literature its Restoration in Italy Invention of Printing... Continue reading book >>




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