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Visual Illusions Their Causes, Characteristics and Applications   By: (1883-1967)

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First Page:

VISUAL ILLUSIONS

THEIR CAUSES, CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS

BY M. LUCKIESH

DIRECTOR OF APPLIED SCIENCE, NELA RESEARCH LABORATORIES, NATIONAL LAMP WORKS OF GENERAL ELECTRIC CO.

AUTHOR OF "COLOR AND ITS APPLICATIONS," "LIGHT AND SHADE AND THEIR APPLICATIONS," "THE LIGHTING ART," "THE LANGUAGE OF COLOR," "ARTIFICIAL LIGHT ITS INFLUENCE UPON CIVILIZATION," "LIGHTING THE HOME," ETC.

100 ILLUSTRATIONS

NEW YORK D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY EIGHT WARREN STREET 1922

COPYRIGHT, 1922, BY D. VAN NOSTRAND COMPANY

PREFACE

Eventually one of the results of application to the analysis and measurement of the phenomena of light, color, lighting, and vision is a firmly entrenched conviction of the inadequacy of physical measurements as a means for representing what is perceived. Physical measurements have supplied much of the foundation of knowledge and it is not a reflection upon their great usefulness to state that often they differ from the results of intellectual appraisal through the visual sense. In other words, there are numberless so called visual illusions which must be taken into account. All are of interest; many can be utilized; and some must be suppressed.

Scientific literature yields a great many valuable discussions from theoretical and experimental viewpoints but much of the material is controversial. The practical aspects of visual illusions have been quite generally passed by and, inasmuch as there does not appear to be a volume available which treats the subject in a condensed manner but with a broad scope, this small volume is contributed toward filling the gap.

The extreme complexity of the subject is recognized, but an attempt toward simplicity of treatment has been made by confining the discussion chiefly to static visual illusions, by suppressing minor details, and by subordinating theory. In other words, the intent has been to emphasize experimental facts. Even these are so numerous that only the merest glimpses of various aspects can be given in order to limit the text to a small volume. Some theoretical aspects of the subject are still extremely controversial, so they are introduced only occasionally and then chiefly for the purpose of illustrating the complexities and the trends of attempted explanations. Space does not even admit many qualifications which may be necessary in order to escape criticism entirely.

The visual illusions discussed are chiefly of the static type, although a few others have been introduced. Some of the latter border upon motion, others upon hallucinations, and still others produced by external optical media are illusions only by extension of the term. These exceptions are included for the purpose of providing glimpses into the borderlands.

It is hoped that this condensed discussion, which is ambitious only in scope, will be of interest to the general reader, to painters, decorators, and architects, to lighting experts, and to all interested in light, color, and vision. It is an essential supplement to certain previous works.

M. LUCKIESH

November, 1920.

CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE

I. Introduction 1

II. The eye 13

III. Vision 29

IV. Some types of geometrical illusions 44

V. Equivocal figures 64

VI. The influence of angles 76

VII. Illusions of depth and of distance 102

VIII. Irradiation and brightness contrast 114

IX. Color 124

X. Lighting 144

XI. Nature 164

XII. Painting and decoration 179

XIII. Architecture 195

XIV. Mirror Magic 205

XV... Continue reading book >>




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