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Wild Bees, Wasps and Ants and Other Stinging Insects   By: (1848-1910)

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First Page:

WILD BEES, WASPS AND ANTS

[Illustration: PLATE A.

1. Formica sanguinea, male. 2. Formica sanguinea, female. 3. Formica sanguinea, worker. 4. Mutilla europæa, male. 5. Mutilla Europæa, female. 6. Cerceris arenaria, female. 7. Ammophila sabulosa, female. 8. Crabro cribrarius, male. 9. Odynerus spinipes, male.

[ front.

WILD BEES, WASPS AND ANTS

And Other Stinging Insects

By

EDWARD SAUNDERS

F.R.S., F.L.S., etc

With numerous Illustrations in the text, and Four Coloured Plates by CONSTANCE A. SAUNDERS

[Illustration]

LONDON GEORGE ROUTLEDGE & SONS, LIMITED NEW YORK: E. P. DUTTON & CO.

{v}

PREFACE

The object of this little book is to give in as simple a form as possible a short account of some of the British Wild Bees, Wasps, Ants, etc., scientifically known as the Hymenoptera Aculeata . Of these the non scientific public rarely recognizes more than the Hive Bee, the Humble Bee, the Wasp, and the Hornet, whereas there are about 400 different kinds to be found in this country, and they can be recognized by any one who is disposed to make a special study of the group.

The author has not hesitated to make free use of the experiences of others in regard to the habits of the insects he describes, and he has not thought it necessary in each case to make separate acknowledgment of this. He takes this opportunity of thanking Mr. H. Donisthorpe and Mr. F. W. L. Sladen for assistance in the chapters on Ants and their Lodgers, and Humble Bees, respectively. {vi}

These pages are written only for the non scientific, as the scientific entomologist will be already familiar with the elementary facts recorded; but it is hoped that they may be of interest to lovers of Nature who wish to know a little about the insects they see round them and how they spend their lives. Of this knowledge very little exists, as the scraps which have been here brought together evidence. There is an immense field open for research and observation, and the writer of this little book will be very glad if the following pages should encourage any one to take up the subject and add to our present scanty stock of information.

EDWARD SAUNDERS.

ST. ANN'S, WOKING.

{vii}

CONTENTS

PAGE

THE SUBJECT IN GENERAL, 1

THE SOLITARY GROUPS, 6

THE SOLITARY BEES, 9

THE CUCKOO BEES, 14

THE FOSSORS, OR DIGGERS, 18

THE SOLITARY WASPS, 24

THE SOCIAL GROUPS, 28

THE ANTS, 31

THE SOCIAL WASPS, 35

THE HUMBLE BEES, 39

THE BEES WITH BIFID TONGUES, 44

THE BEES WITH POINTED TONGUES, 48

LEAF CUTTING BEES, 52

Osmia AND ITS HABITS, 55

A COLONY OF Anthophora , 61

BEES AND POLLEN COLLECTING, 65

ON BEES' TONGUES, AND HOW THEY SUCK HONEY, 72

A DREADFUL PARASITE, 77

{viii} AMONGST THE BEES AT WORK, 81

ANTS, THEIR GUESTS, AND THEIR LODGERS, 88

HOW CAN AN "ACULEATE" BE RECOGNIZED?, 92

MALES AND FEMALES, 95

THE VAGARIES OF COLOUR AND STRUCTURE IN THE SEXES, 100

THE DISTRIBUTION, RARITY, OR ABUNDANCE OF VARIOUS SPECIES, 105

ON BEES' WINGS, 110

ON BREEDING ACULEATES, ETC... Continue reading book >>




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