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Wonders of Creation   By:

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First Page:

[Illustration: Mount Vesuvius]

[Illustration: Marvels of Creation]

WONDERS OF CREATION:

A DESCRIPTIVE ACCOUNT OF

VOLCANOES AND THEIR PHENOMENA.

"The mountains quake at Him and the hills melt and the earth is burned at His presence" NAHUM 1:5

1872

PREFACE

Being intended for the Young, this work treats of Volcanoes only in a popular way. Scientific details and philosophical speculations are accordingly avoided. Nevertheless, a perusal of the following pages may so stimulate the curiosity of youthful minds, that some, on attaining to riper years and more mature understanding, may be inspired with a longing to inquire more deeply into this interesting subject. They may be stimulated to investigate, in a philosophical spirit, all the marvellous facts and phenomena connected with volcanic agency, and to speculate on their causes and modes of operation. Some also, on reaching their manhood, may be induced to ascend one or more of the nearer active volcanoes, and examine their phenomena for themselves. The facilities of travel are now so great, that a visit to Vesuvius or Etna is no longer beyond the limits of a holiday trip. Even the more remote Hecla with the playful Geysers may be reached within a reasonable time. Perhaps a very few, who are now scientific travellers in embryo, may call to remembrance what they may have read in these pages, when, many years hence, they may be climbing the cone of Cotopaxi, or peering into the crater of Kilauea.

Apart from these considerations, a perusal of this work may enable the young mind to form a more lively idea of the tremendous energy of the forces which are imprisoned in the bowels of the earth. Such a vivid conception will naturally lead to a higher appreciation of the wisdom and power of Him who guides the operation of those forces by his laws, and has set bounds to their activity which they cannot overpass.

CONTENTS.

CHAPTER I.

Volcanoes in general Origin of the Name General Aspect Crater Cone Subordinate Cones and Craters Peak of Teneriffe Lava Streams Cascades and Jets of Lava Variations in its Consistency Pumice Different Sorts of Lava Obsidian Olivine Sulphur Dust, Ashes, &c. Volcanic Silk Volcanic Islands Volcanic Fishes Hot Water, Mud, Vapours, &c. Volcanic Storm Explosions Number of Volcanoes King of the Volcanoes Artificial Volcano

CHAPTER II.

Volcanoes of Iceland Mount Hecla Earliest Eruption Great Eruption in 1845 Skaptàr Yökul Terrible Eruption in 1783 Rise and Disappearance of Nyoë Katlugaia The Geysers A very hot Bath Californian Geysers Iceland spar Jan Mayen

CHAPTER III.

Mount Vesuvius Origin of Name Former Condition Eruption of A.D. 79 Death of Pliny Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum Appearance of the Mountain before and after Eruption Formation of Monte Nuovo Eruption of Boiling Water Coloured Vapours Cascade of Lava Discovery of Remains of Herculaneum and Pompeii The Buildings of Pompeii Street of Tombs Skeletons Sundry Shops Ascents of Vesuvius Crater Temple of Serapis

CHAPTER IV.

Mount Etna Its Appearance and Height Ancient Eruptions Pindar's Allusion Virgil's Description Subordinate Cones and Craters Caverns Val de Bove Formation of Monti Rossi Eruption of 1852 Whirlwinds Lava Torrents Cascades of Lava Description of Crater Empedocles Enceladus Craters of 1865 Cyclopean Isles Homer's Legend Volcanic Origin Other Basaltic Groups

CHAPTER V.

Lipari Islands Stromboli Origin of Name Position of Crater Description of Crater New Volcanic Island named Julia Phenomena preceding its Elevation Description of Island and Crater Its Disappearance Rise of Islands at Santorin

CHAPTER VI.

Peak of Teneriffe Its Crater Eruption of Chahorra Palma Great Caldera Lancerote Great Eruption Sudden Death Fuego, Cape de Verde Islands Cotopaxi Its Appearance Great Eruptive Force Tunguragua Great Eruption of Mud and Water Fish thrown out Quito Its Overthrow Pichinca Humboldt's Ascent Narrow Escape Antisana Sangay Rancagua Chillan Masaya

CHAPTER VII... Continue reading book >>




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