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Wrinkles in Electric Lighting   By:

Wrinkles in Electric Lighting by Vincent Stephen

First Page:

TRANSCRIBER'S NOTES Some minor typographical errors corrected. Inconsistencies in spelling and lay out have not been corrected. Italics are represented between underscores as in italics . Bold faced type is represented as in =bold face=. Sidenotes from the original work have been deleted from this e text, since their sheer number made reading the text difficult. The section titles given in the Table of Contents are the same as the original sidenotes.

WRINKLES IN ELECTRIC LIGHTING.

WRINKLES IN ELECTRIC LIGHTING.

BY

VINCENT STEPHEN.

[Illustration]

E. & F. N. SPON, 125, STRAND, LONDON.

NEW YORK: 12, CORTLANDT STREET.

1888.

INTRODUCTION.

In the following pages it is my intention to give engineers on board ship, who may be put in charge of electric lighting machinery without having any electrical knowledge, some idea of the manner in which electricity is produced by mechanical means; how it is converted into light; what precautions must be used to keep the plant in order, and what to do in the event of difficulties arising. I do not therefore aim at producing a literary work, but shall try and explain everything in the plainest language possible.

CONTENTS.

THE ELECTRIC CURRENT, AND ITS PRODUCTION BY CHEMICAL MEANS. PAGE

Production of electric current in chemical battery Current very weak Current compared to circulation of the blood Strength and volume of current Pressure not sufficient without volume Action of current is instantaneous Resistance to the passage of the current Copper the usual metal for conductors Heat produced by current when wire is too small 1

PRODUCTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS BY MECHANICAL MEANS.

Magneto Electric Machines.

Current produced by mechanical means Alternating current Magneto electric machines Shock produced by interruption of current The current must be commutated Description of commutator Current, though alternating in the dynamo, is continuous in the circuit Continuous current used for electro plating 5

Dynamo Electric Machines.

Current will magnetise an iron or steel bar Permanent magnet Electro magnet Where the magneto and dynamo machines differ Armature of so called continuous current dynamo Type of commutator Commutator brushes Current continuous in the circuit Alternating current dynamos Current not commutated Intense magnetic field produced Simplicity of Ferranti armature Large number of alternations of the current Alternating current cannot be used to excite an electro magnet Exciter coupled on to same spindle as dynamo Power of exciter if used alone 9

ELECTRIC LAMPS.

Production of electric light Arc lights Mechanism to regulate carbons Some lamps suitable for alternating current When carbons are consumed, light goes out Arc lamps very complicated Jablochkoff candles Arc formed between the carbons Candles require alternating current Incandescent lamps Vacuum formed in lamps prevents combustion Vacuum not perfect Advantages of incandescent lamps for house and ship lighting Unaffected by wind, and suitable for either continuous or alternating currents 19

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