The Nobel Prizes are international awards bestowed once a year by Scandinavian committees for cultural and scientific advances. They were established in 1895 by the Swedish chemist Alfred Nobel, the inventor of dynamite. The prizes in Physics, Chemistry, Physiology or Medicine, Literature, and Peace were first awarded in 1901.
The Laureats of 1908 were:
in Physics: Gabriel Lippmann (1845 - 1921) for "his method of reproducing colours photographically based on the phenomenon of interference";
in Chemistry: Ernest Rutherford (1871 - 1937) for "his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances";
in Physiology or Medicine: Ilya Ilyich Mechnikoff (1845 - 1916) and Paul Ehrlich (1854-1915) "in recognition of their work on immunity";
in Literature: Rudolf Christoph Eucken (1846 - 1926) "in recognition of his earnest search for truth, his penetrating power of thought, his wide range of vision, and the warmth and strength in presentation with which in his numerous works he has vindicated and developed an idealistic philosophy of life";
in Peace: Klas Pontus Arnoldson (1844 - 1916) and Fredrik Bajer (1837 - 1922).
This multilingual collection (in Danish, English, French, German, and Swedish) contains the presentation speeches for the Laureats, their biographies, as well as the "Nobel lectures" by the Laureats.