THE MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS
OF LOGIC,
BEING AN ESSAY TOWARDS A CALCULUS
OF DEDUCTIVE REASONING.
BY GEORGE BOOLE.
Aristotle, Anal. Post., lib. i. cap. xi.
CAMBRIDGE:
MACMILLAN, BARCLAY, & MACMILLAN;
LONDON: GEORGE BELL.
1847
PRINTED IN ENGLAND BY
HENDERSON & SPALDING
LONDON. W.I
PREFACE.
In presenting this Work to public notice, I deem it not irrelevant to ob-
serve, that speculations similar to those which it records have, at different
periods, occupied my thoughts. In the spring of the present year my atten-
tion was directed to the question then moved between Sir W. Hamilton and
Professor De Morgan; and I was induced by the interest which it inspired,
to resume the almost-forgotten thread of former inquiries. It appeared to
me that, although Logic might be viewed with reference to the idea of
quantity,* it had also another and a deeper system of relations. If it was
lawful to regard it from without, as connecting itself through the medium
of Number with the intuitions of Space and Time, it was lawful also to
regard it from within, as based upon facts of another order which have
their abode in the constitution of the Mind. The results of this view, and
of the inquiries which it suggested, are embodied in the following Treatise.
It is not generally permitted to an Author to prescribe the mode in
which his production shall be judged; but there are two conditions which
I may venture to require of those who shall undertake to estimate the
merits of this performance. The first is, that no preconceived notion of
the impossibility of its objects shall be permitted to interfere with that
candour and impartiality which the investigation of Truth demands; the
second is, that their judgment of the system as a whole shall not be founded
either upon the examination of only a part of it, or upon the measure of its
conformity with any received system, considered as a standard of reference
from which appeal is denied. It is in the general theorems which occupy
the latter chapters of this work,|results to which there is no existing
counterpart,|that the claims of the method, as a Calculus of Deductive
Reasoning, are most fully set forth.
What may be the final estimate of the value of the system, I have
neither the wish nor the right to anticipate. The estimation of a theory is
*See p. 43.
preface. 2
not simply determined by its truth. It also depends upon the importance
of its subject, and the extent of its applications; beyond which something
must still be left to the arbitrariness of human Opinion. If the utility of
the application of Mathematical forms to the science of Logic were solely a
question of Notation, I should be content to rest the defence of this attempt
upon a principle which has been stated by an able living writer: \Whenever
the nature of the subject permits the reasoning process to be without
danger carried on mechanically, the language should be constructed on as
mechanical principles as possible; while in the contrary case it should be
so constructed, that there shall be the greatest possible obstacle to a mere
mechanical use of it."* In one respect, the science of Logic differs from
all others; the perfection of its method is chie
y valuable as an evidence
of the speculative truth of its principles. To supersede the employment of
common reason, or to subject it to the rigour of technical forms, would
be the last desire of one who knows the value of that intellectual toil and
warfare which imparts to the mind an athletic vigour, and teaches it to
contend with difficulties and to rely upon itself in emergencies.
Lincoln, Oct. 29, 1847.
*Mill's System of Logic, Ratiocinative and Inductive, Vol. ii. p. 292.
MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS OF LOGIC.
INTRODUCTION.
They who are acquainted with the present state of the theory of Sym-
bolical Algebra, are aware, that the validity of the processes of analysis
does not depend upon the interpretation of the symbols which are em-
ployed, but solely upon the laws of their combination. Every system of
interpretation which does not affect the truth of the relations supposed, is
equally admissible, and it is thus that the same process may, under one
scheme of interpretation, represent the solution of a question on the prop-
erties of numbers, under another, that of a geometrical problem, and under
a third, that of a problem of dynamics or optics. This principle is indeed
of fundamental importance; and it may with safety be affirmed, that the
recent advances of pure analysis have been much assisted by the in
uence
which it has exerted in directing the current of investigation.
But the full recognition of the consequences of this important doctrine
has been, in some measure, retarded by accidental circumstances. It has
happened in every known form of analysis, that the elements to be deter-
mined have been conceived as measurable by comparison with some fixed
standard. The predominant idea has been that of magnitude, or more
strictly, of numerical ratio. The expression of magnitude, or of operations
upon magnitude, has been the express object for which the symbols of
Analysis have been invented, and for which their laws have been investi-
gated. Thus the abstractions of the modern Analysis, not less than the
ostensive diagrams of the ancient Geometry, have encouraged the notion,
that Mathematics are essentially, as well as actually, the Science of Mag-
nitude.
The consideration of that view which has already been stated, as em-
bodying the true principle of the Algebra of Symbols, would, however, lead
us to infer that this conclusion is by no means necessary. If every exist-
introduction. 4
ing interpretation is shewn to involve the idea of magnitude, it is only by
induction that we can assert that no other interpretation is possible. And
it may be doubted whether our experience is sufficient to render such an
induction legitimate. The history of pure Analysis is, it may be said, too
recent to permit us to set limits to the extent of its applications. Should
we grant to the inference a high degree of probability, we might still, and
with reason, maintain the sufficiency of the definition to which the princi-
ple already stated would lead us. We might justly assign it as the definitive
character of a true Calculus, that it is a method resting upon the employ-
ment of Symbols, whose laws of combination are known and general, and
whose results admit of a consistent interpretation. That to the existing
forms of Analysis a quantitative interpretation is assigned, is the result of
the circumstances by which those forms were determined, and is not to be
construed into a universal condition of Analysis. It is upon the foundation
of this general principle, that I purpose to establish the Calculus of Logic,
and that I claim for it a place among the acknowledged forms of Math-
ematical Analysis, regardless that in its object and in its instruments it
must at present stand alone.
That which renders Logic possible, is the existence in our minds of
general notions,|our ability to conceive of a class, and to designate its
individual members by a common name. The theory of Logic is thus inti-
mately connected with that of Language. A successful attempt to express
logical propositions by symbols, the laws of whose combinations should
be founded upon the laws of the mental processes which they represent,
would, so far, be a step toward a philosophical language. But this is a view
which we need not here follow into detail.* Assuming the notion of a class,
*This view is well expressed in one of Blanco White's Letters:|\Logic is for the most
part a collection of technical rules founded on classification. The Syllogism is nothing
but a result of the classification of things, which the mind naturally and necessarily
forms, in forming a language. All abstract terms are classifications; or rather the labels
of the classes which the mind has settled."|Memoirs of the Rev. Joseph Blanco White,
vol. ii. p. 163. See also, for a very lucid introduction, Dr. Latham's First Outlines of
Logic applied to Language, Becker's German Grammar, &c. Extreme Nominalists make
introduction. 5
we are able, from any conceivable collection of objects, to separate by a
mental act, those which belong to the given class, and to contemplate them
apart from the rest. Such, or a similar act of election, we may conceive
to be repeated. The group of individuals left under consideration may be
still further limited, by mentally selecting those among them which belong
to some other recognised class, as well as to the one before contemplated.
And this process may be repeated with other elements of distinction, until
we arrive at an individual possessing all the distinctive characters which
we have taken into account, and a member, at the same time, of every class
which we have enumerated. It is in fact a method similar to this which we
employ whenever, in common language, we accumulate descriptive epithets
for the sake of more precise definition.
Now the several mental operations which in the above case we have
supposed to be performed, are subject to peculiar laws. It is possible to
assign relations among them, whether as respects the repetition of a given
operation or the succession of different ones, or some other particular,
which are never violated. It is, for example, true that the result of two
successive acts is unaffected by the order in which they are performed; and
there are at least two other laws which will be pointed out in the proper
place. These will perhaps to some appear so obvious as to be ranked among
necessary truths, and so little important as to be undeserving of special
notice. And probably they are noticed for the first time in this Essay. Yet
it may with confidence be asserted, that if they were other than they are,
the entire mechanism of reasoning, nay the very laws and constitution of
the human intellect, would be vitally changed. A Logic might indeed exist,
but it would no longer be the Logic we possess.
Such are the elementary laws upon the existence of which, and upon
their capability of exact symbolical expression, the method of the follow-
ing Essay is founded; and it is presumed that the object which it seeks to
attain will be thought to have been very fully accomplished. Every log-
Logic entirely dependent upon language. For the opposite view, see Cudworth's Eternal
and Immutable Morality, Book iv. Chap. iii.
introduction. 6
ical proposition, whether categorical or hypothetical, will be found to be
capable of exact and rigorous expression, and not only will the laws of con-
version and of syllogism be thence deducible, but the resolution of the most
complex systems of propositions, the separation of any proposed element,
and the expression of its value in terms of the remaining elements, with
every subsidiary relation involved. Every process will represent deduction,
every mathematical consequence will express a logical inference. The gen-
erality of the method will even permit us to express arbitrary operations
of the intellect, and thus lead to the demonstration of general theorems in
logic analogous, in no slight degree, to the general theorems of ordinary
mathematics. No inconsiderable part of the pleasure which we derive from
the application of analysis to the interpretation of external nature, arises
from the conceptions which it enables us to form of the universality of the
dominion of law. The general formulae to which we are conducted seem
to give to that element a visible presence, and the multitude of particular
cases to which they apply, demonstrate the extent of its sway. Even the
symmetry of their analytical expression may in no fanciful sense be deemed
indicative of its harmony and its consistency. Now I do not presume to say
to what extent the same sources of pleasure are opened in the following
Essay. The measure of that extent may be left to the estimate of those
who shall think the subject worthy of their study. But I may venture to
assert that such occasions of intellectual gratification are not here wanting.
The laws we have to examine are the laws of one of the most important
of our mental faculties. The mathematics we have to construct are the
mathematics of the human intellect. Nor are the form and character of the
method, apart from all regard to its interpretation, undeserving of notice.
There is even a remarkable exemplification, in its general theorems, of that
species of excellence which consists in freedom from exception. And this
is observed where, in the corresponding cases of the received mathematics,
such a character is by no means apparent. The few who think that there
is that in analysis which renders it deserving of attention for its own sake,
may find it worth while to study it under a form in which every equation
can be solved and every solution interpreted. Nor will it lessen the interest
introduction. 7
of this study to re
ect that every peculiarity which they will notice in the
form of the Calculus represents a corresponding feature in the constitution
of their own minds.
It would be premature to speak of the value which this method may
possess as an instrument of scientific investigation. I speak here with refer-
ence to the theory of reasoning, and to the principle of a true classification
of the forms and cases of Logic considered as a Science.* The aim of these
investigations was in the first instance confined to the expression of the
received logic, and to the forms of the Aristotelian arrangement, but it
soon became apparent that restrictions were thus introduced, which were
purely arbitrary and had no foundation in the nature of things. These were
noted as they occurred, and will be discussed in the proper place. When it
became necessary to consider the subject of hypothetical propositions (in
which comparatively less has been done), and still more, when an inter-
pretation was demanded for the general theorems of the Calculus, it was
found to be imperative to dismiss all regard for precedent and authority,
and to interrogate the method itself for an expression of the just limits of
its application. Still, however, there was no special effort to arrive at novel
results. But among those which at the time of their discovery appeared to
be such, it may be proper to notice the following.
A logical proposition is, according to the method of this Essay, express-
ible by an equation the form of which determines the rules of conversion
and of transformation, to which the given proposition is subject. Thus the
law of what logicians term simple conversion, is determined by the fact,
that the corresponding equations are symmetrical, that they are unaffected
by a mutual change of place, in those symbols which correspond to the con-
vertible classes. The received laws of conversion were thus determined, and
afterwards another system, which is thought to be more elementary, and
more general. See Chapter, On the Conversion of Propositions.
*\Strictly a Science"; also \an Art."|Whately's Elements of Logic. Indeed ought
we not to regard all Art as applied Science; unless we are willing, with \the multitude,"
to consider Art as \guessing and aiming well"?|Plato, Philebus.
introduction. 8
The premises of a syllogism being expressed by equations, the elimina-
tion of a common symbol between them leads to a third equation which
expresses the conclusion, this conclusion being always the most general
possible, whether Aristotelian or not. Among the cases in which no infer-
ence was possible, it was found, that there were two distinct forms of the
final equation. It was a considerable time before the explanation of this
fact was discovered, but it was at length seen to depend upon the presence
or absence of a true medium of comparison between the premises. The
distinction which is thought to be new is illustrated in the Chapter, On
Syllogisms.
The nonexclusive character of the disjunctive conclusion of a hypothet-
ical syllogism, is very clearly pointed out in the examples of this species of
argument.
The class of logical problems illustrated in the chapter, On the Solution
of Elective Equations, is conceived to be new: and it is believed that the
method of that chapter affords the means of a perfect analysis of any
conceivable system of propositions, an end toward which the rules for the
conversion of a single categorical proposition are but the first step.
However, upon the originality of these or any of these views, I am
conscious that I possess too slight an acquaintance with the literature of
logical science, and especially with its older literature, to permit me to
speak with confidence.
It may not be inappropriate, before concluding these observations, to
offer a few remarks upon the general question of the use of symbolical
language in the mathematics. Objections have lately been very strongly
urged against this practice, on the ground, that by obviating the necessity
of thought, and substituting a reference to general formulae in the room of
personal effort, it tends to weaken the reasoning faculties.
Now the question of the use of symbols may be considered in two dis-
tinct points of view. First, it may be considered with reference to the
progress of scientific discovery, and secondly, with reference to its bearing
upon the discipline of the intellect.
And with respect to the first view, it may be observed that as it is
introduction. 9
one fruit of an accomplished labour, that it sets us at liberty to engage
in more arduous toils, so it is a necessary result of an advanced state
of science, that we are permitted, and even called upon, to proceed to
higher problems, than those which we before contemplated. The practical
inference is obvious. If through the advancing power of scientific methods,
we find that the pursuits on which we were once engaged, afford no longer
a sufficiently ample field for intellectual effort, the remedy is, to proceed to
higher inquiries, and, in new tracks, to seek for difficulties yet unsubdued.
And such is, indeed, the actual law of scientific progress. We must be
content, either to abandon the hope of further conquest, or to employ such
aids of symbolical language, as are proper to the stage of progress, at which
we have arrived. Nor need we fear to commit ourselves to such a course.
We have not yet arrived so near to the boundaries of possible knowledge,
as to suggest the apprehension, that scope will fail for the exercise of the
inventive faculties.
In discussing the second, and scarcely less momentous question of the
in
uence of the use of symbols upon the discipline of the intellect, an im-
portant distinction ought to be made. It is of most material consequence,
whether those symbols are used with a full understanding of their meaning,
with a perfect comprehension of that which renders their use lawful, and
an ability to expand the abbreviated forms of reasoning which they induce,
into their full syllogistic development; or whether they are mere unsugges-
tive characters, the use of which is suffered to rest upon authority.
The answer which must be given to the question proposed, will differ
according as the one or the other of these suppositions is admitted. In the
former case an intellectual discipline of a high order is provided, an exercise
not only of reason, but of the faculty of generalization. In the latter case
there is no mental discipline whatever. It were perhaps the best security
against the danger of an unreasoning reliance upon symbols, on the one
hand, and a neglect of their just claims on the other, that each subject
of applied mathematics should be treated in the spirit of the methods
which were known at the time when the application was made, but in the
best form which those methods have assumed. The order of attainment in
introduction. 10
the individual mind would thus bear some relation to the actual order of
scientific discovery, and the more abstract methods of the higher analysis
would be offered to such minds only, as were prepared to receive them.
The relation in which this Essay stands at once to Logic and to Math-
ematics, may further justify some notice of the question which has lately
been revived, as to the relative value of the two studies in a liberal ed-
ucation. One of the chief objections which have been urged against the
study of Mathematics in general, is but another form of that which has
been already considered with respect to the use of symbols in particular.
And it need not here be further dwelt upon, than to notice, that if it avails
anything, it applies with an equal force against the study of Logic. The
canonical forms of the Aristotelian syllogism are really symbolical; only the
symbols are less perfect of their kind than those of mathematics. If they
are employed to test the validity of an argument, they as truly supersede
the exercise of reason, as does a reference to a formula of analysis. Whether
men do, in the present day, make this use of the Aristotelian canons, ex-
cept as a special illustration of the rules of Logic, may be doubted; yet it
cannot be questioned that when the authority of Aristotle was dominant
in the schools of Europe, such applications were habitually made. And our
argument only requires the admission, that the case is possible.
But the question before us has been argued upon higher grounds. Re-
garding Logic as a branch of Philosophy, and defining Philosophy as the
\science of a real existence," and \the research of causes," and assigning
as its main business the investigation of the \why, (tä dÐoti)," while Math-
ematics display only the \that, (tä åtÈ)," Sir W. Hamilton has contended,
not simply, that the superiority rests with the study of Logic, but that the
study of Mathematics is at once dangerous and useless.* The pursuits of
the mathematician \have not only not trained him to that acute scent, to
that delicate, almost instinctive, tact which, in the twilight of probability,
the search and discrimination of its finer facts demand; they have gone
to cloud his vision, to indurate his touch, to all but the blazing light, the
*Edinburgh Review, vol. lxii. p. 409, and Letter to A. De Morgan, Esq.
introduction. 11
iron chain of demonstration, and left him out of the narrow confines of his
science, to a passive credulity in any premises, or to an absolute incredulity
in all." In support of these and of other charges, both argument and co-
pious authority are adduced.* I shall not attempt a complete discussion
of the topics which are suggested by these remarks. My object is not con-
troversy, and the observations which follow are offered not in the spirit of
antagonism, but in the hope of contributing to the formation of just views
upon an important subject. Of Sir W. Hamilton it is impossible to speak
otherwise than with that respect which is due to genius and learning.
Philosophy is then described as the science of a real existence and the
research of causes. And that no doubt may rest upon the meaning of the
word cause, it is further said, that philosophy \mainly investigates the
why." These definitions are common among the ancient writers. Thus
Seneca, one of Sir W. Hamilton's authorities, Epistle lxxxviii., \The
philosopher seeks and knows the causes of natural things, of which the
mathematician searches out and computes the numbers and the measures."
It may be remarked, in passing, that in whatever degree the belief has pre-
vailed, that the business of philosophy is immediately with causes; in the
same degree has every science whose object is the investigation of laws, been
lightly esteemed. Thus the Epistle to which we have referred, bestows, by
contrast with Philosophy, a separate condemnation on Music and Gram-
mar, on Mathematics and Astronomy, although it is that of Mathematics
only that Sir W. Hamilton has quoted.
Now we might take our stand upon the conviction of many thoughtful
and re
ective minds, that in the extent of the meaning above stated, Phi-
losophy is impossible. The business of true Science, they conclude, is with
laws and phenomena. The nature of Being, the mode of the operation of
Cause, the why, they hold to be beyond the reach of our intelligence. But
*The arguments are in general better than the authorities. Many writers quoted
in condemnation of mathematics (Aristo, Seneca, Jerome, Augustine, Cornelius
Agrippa, &c.) have borne a no less explicit testimony against other sciences, nor least of
all, against that of logic. The treatise of the last named writer De Vanitate Scientiarum,
must surely have been referred to by mistake.|Vide cap. cii.
introduction. 12
we do not require the vantage-ground of this position; nor is it doubted
that whether the aim of Philosophy is attainable or not, the desire which
impels us to the attempt is an instinct of our higher nature. Let it be
granted that the problem which has baffled the efforts of ages, is not a
hopeless one; that the \science of a real existence," and \the research of
causes," \that kernel" for which \Philosophy is still militant," do not tran-
scend the limits of the human intellect. I am then compelled to assert, that
according to this view of the nature of Philosophy, Logic forms no part of
it. On the principle of a true classification, we ought no longer to associate
Logic and Metaphysics, but Logic and Mathematics.
Should any one after what has been said, entertain a doubt upon this
point, I must refer him to the evidence which will be afforded in the follow-
ing Essay. He will there see Logic resting like Geometry upon axiomatic
truths, and its theorems constructed upon that general doctrine of symbols,
which constitutes the foundation of the recognised Analysis. In the Logic
of Aristotle he will be led to view a collection of the formulae of the science,
expressed by another, but, (it is thought) less perfect scheme of symbols.
I feel bound to contend for the absolute exactness of this parallel. It is
no escape from the conclusion to which it points to assert, that Logic not
only constructs a science, but also inquires into the origin and the nature
of its own principles,|a distinction which is denied to Mathematics. \It is
wholly beyond the domain of mathematicians," it is said, \to inquire into
the origin and nature of their principles."|Review, page 415. But upon
what ground can such a distinction be maintained? What definition of the
term Science will be found sufficiently arbitrary to allow such differences?
The application of this conclusion to the question before us is clear and
decisive. The mental discipline which is afforded by the study of Logic, as
an exact science, is, in species, the same as that afforded by the study of
Analysis.
Is it then contended that either Logic or Mathematics can supply a
perfect discipline to the Intellect? The most careful and unprejudiced
examination of this question leads me to doubt whether such a position
can be maintained. The exclusive claims of either must, I believe, be
introduction. 13
abandoned, nor can any others, partaking of a like exclusive character, be
admitted in their room. It is an important observation, which has more
than once been made, that it is one thing to arrive at correct premises,
and another thing to deduce logical conclusions, and that the business of
life depends more upon the former than upon the latter. The study of
the exact sciences may teach us the one, and it may give us some general
preparation of knowledge and of practice for the attainment of the other,
but it is to the union of thought with action, in the field of Practical Logic,
the arena of Human Life, that we are to look for its fuller and more perfect
accomplishment.
I desire here to express my conviction, that with the advance of our
knowledge of all true science, an ever-increasing harmony will be found to
prevail among its separate branches. The view which leads to the rejection
of one, ought, if consistent, to lead to the rejection of others. And indeed
many of the authorities which have been quoted against the study of Math-
ematics, are even more explicit in their condemnation of Logic. \Natural
science," says the Chian Aristo, \is above us, Logical science does not con-
cern us." When such conclusions are founded (as they often are) upon a
deep conviction of the preeminent value and importance of the study of
Morals, we admit the premises, but must demur to the inference. For it
has been well said by an ancient writer, that it is the \characteristic of the
liberal sciences, not that they conduct us to Virtue, but that they prepare
us for Virtue;" and Melancthon's sentiment, \abeunt studia in mores,"
has passed into a proverb. Moreover, there is a common ground upon
which all sincere votaries of truth may meet, exchanging with each other
the language of Flamsteed's appeal to Newton, \The works of the Eternal
Providence will be better understood through your labors and mine."
FIRST PRINCIPLES.
Let us employ the symbol 1, or unity, to represent the Universe, and
let us understand it as comprehending every conceivable class of objects
whether actually existing or not, it being premised that the same individual
may be found in more than one class, inasmuch as it may possess more
than one quality in common with other individuals. Let us employ the
letters X, Y, Z, to represent the individual members of classes, X applying
to every member of one class, as members of that particular class, and
Y to every member of another class as members of such class, and so on,
according to the received language of treatises on Logic.
Further let us conceive a class of symbols x, y, z, possessed of the
following character.
The symbol x operating upon any subject comprehending individuals
or classes, shall be supposed to select from that subject all the Xs which
it contains. In like manner the symbol y, operating upon any subject,
shall be supposed to select from it all individuals of the class Y which are
comprised in it, and so on.
When no subject is expressed, we shall suppose 1 (the Universe) to be
the subject understood, so that we shall have
x = x (1);
the meaning of either term being the selection from the Universe of all
the Xs which it contains, and the result of the operation being in common
language, the class X, i. e. the class of which each member is an X.
From these premises it will follow, that the product xy will represent, in
succession, the selection of the class Y, and the selection from the class Y
of such individuals of the class X as are contained in it, the result being
the class whose members are both Xs and Ys. And in like manner the
product xyz will represent a compound operation of which the successive
elements are the selection of the class Z, the selection from it of such
first principles. 15
individuals of the class Y as are contained in it, and the selection from the
result thus obtained of all the individuals of the class X which it contains,
the final result being the class common to X, Y, and Z.
From the nature of the operation which the symbols x, y, z, are con-
ceived to represent, we shall designate them as elective symbols. An ex-
pression in which they are involved will be called an elective function, and
an equation of which the members are elective functions, will be termed
an elective equation.
It will not be necessary that we should here enter into the analysis of
that mental operation which we have represented by the elective symbol.
It is not an act of Abstraction according to the common acceptation of that
term, because we never lose sight of the concrete, but it may probably be
referred to an exercise of the faculties of Comparison and Attention. Our
present concern is rather with the laws of combination and of succession,
by which its results are governed, and of these it will suffice to notice the
following.
1st. The result of an act of election is independent of the grouping or
classification of the subject.
Thus it is indifferent whether from a group of objects considered as
a whole, we select the class X, or whether we divide the group into two
parts, select the Xs from them separately, and then connect the results in
one aggregate conception.
We may express this law mathematically by the equation
x(u + v) = xu + xv;
u+v representing the undivided subject, and u and v the component parts
of it.
2nd. It is indifferent in what order two successive acts of election are
performed.
Whether from the class of animals we select sheep, and from the sheep
those which are horned, or whether from the class of animals we select the
horned, and from these such as are sheep, the result is unaffected. In either
case we arrive at the class horned sheep.
first principles. 16
The symbolical expression of this law is
xy = yx:
3rd. The result of a given act of election performed twice, or any number
of times in succession, is the result of the same act performed once.
If from a group of objects we select the Xs, we obtain a class of which
all the members are Xs. If we repeat the operation on this class no further
change will ensue: in selecting the Xs we take the whole. Thus we have
xx = x;
or
x2 = x;
and supposing the same operation to be n times performed, we have
xn = x;
which is the mathematical expression of the law above stated.*
The laws we have established under the symbolical forms
x(u + v) = xu + xv; (1)
xy = yx; (2)
xn = x; (3)
*The office of the elective symbol x, is to select individuals comprehended in the
class X. Let the class X be supposed to embrace the universe; then, whatever the class Y
may be, we have
xy = y:
The office which x performs is now equivalent to the symbol +, in one at least of its
interpretations, and the index law (3) gives
+n = +;
which is the known property of that symbol.
first principles. 17
are sufficient for the basis of a Calculus. From the first of these, it ap-
pears that elective symbols are distributive, from the second that they are
commutative; properties which they possess in common with symbols of
quantity, and in virtue of which, all the processes of common algebra are
applicable to the present system. The one and sufficient axiom involved in
this application is that equivalent operations performed upon equivalent
subjects produce equivalent results.*
The third law (3) we shall denominate the index law. It is peculiar to
elective symbols, and will be found of great importance in enabling us to
reduce our results to forms meet for interpretation.
From the circumstance that the processes of algebra may be applied
to the present system, it is not to be inferred that the interpretation of
an elective equation will be unaffected by such processes. The expression
of a truth cannot be negatived by a legitimate operation, but it may be
*It is generally asserted by writers on Logic, that all reasoning ultimately depends
on an application of the dictum of Aristotle, de omni et nullo. \Whatever is predicated
universally of any class of things, may be predicated in like manner of any thing compre-
hended in that class." But it is agreed that this dictum is not immediately applicable
in all cases, and that in a majority of instances, a certain previous process of reduction
is necessary. What are the elements involved in that process of reduction? Clearly they
are as much a part of general reasoning as the dictum itself.
Another mode of considering the subject resolves all reasoning into an application of
one or other of the following canons, viz.
1. If two terms agree with one and the same third, they agree with each other.
2. If one term agrees, and another disagrees, with one and the same third, these two
disagree with each other.
But the application of these canons depends on mental acts equivalent to those which
are involved in the before-named process of reduction. We have to select individuals
from classes, to convert propositions, &c., before we can avail ourselves of their guidance.
Any account of the process of reasoning is insufficient, which does not represent, as well
the laws of the operation which the mind performs in that process, as the primary truths
which it recognises and applies.
It is presumed that the laws in question are adequately represented by the fundamen-
tal equations of the present Calculus. The proof of this will be found in its capability
of expressing propositions, and of exhibiting in the results of its processes, every result
that may be arrived at by ordinary reasoning.
first principles. 18
limited. The equation y = z implies that the classes Y and Z are equivalent,
member for member. Multiply it by a factor x, and we have
xy = xz;
which expresses that the individuals which are common to the classes
X and Y are also common to X and Z, and vice vers^a. This is a per-
fectly legitimate inference, but the fact which it declares is a less general
one than was asserted in the original proposition.
OF EXPRESSION AND INTERPRETATION.
A Proposition is a sentence which either affirms or denies, as, All men are
mortal, No creature is independent.
A Proposition has necessarily two terms, as men, mortal; the former of
which, or the one spoken of, is called the subject; the latter, or that which is
affirmed or denied of the subject, the predicate. These are connected together
by the copula is, or is not, or by some other modification of the substantive
verb.
The substantive verb is the only verb recognised in Logic; all others are
resolvable by means of the verb to be and a participle or adjective, e. g. \The
Romans conquered"; the word conquered is both copula and predicate, being
equivalent to \were (copula) victorious" (predicate).
A Proposition must either be affirmative or negative, and must be also either
universal or particular. Thus we reckon in all, four kinds of pure categorical
Propositions.
1st. Universal-affirmative, usually represented by A,
Ex. All Xs are Ys.
2nd. Universal-negative, usually represented by E,
Ex. No Xs are Ys.
3rd. Particular-affirmative, usually represented by I,
Ex. Some Xs are Ys.
4th. Particular-negative, usually represented by O,*
Ex. Some Xs are not Ys.
*The above is taken, with little variation, from the Treatises of Aldrich and Whately.
of expression and interpretation. 20
1. To express the class, not-X, that is, the class including all individuals
that are not Xs.
The class X and the class not-X together make the Universe. But the
Universe is 1, and the class X is determined by the symbol x, therefore the
class not-X will be determined by the symbol 1 x.
Hence the office of the symbol 1 x attached to a given subject will
be, to select from it all the not-Xs which it contains.
And in like manner, as the product xy expresses the entire class whose
members are both Xs and Ys, the symbol y(1 x) will represent the class
whose members are Ys but not Xs, and the symbol (1x)(1y) the entire
class whose members are neither Xs nor Ys.
2. To express the Proposition, All Xs are Ys.
As all the Xs which exist are found in the class Y, it is obvious that
to select out of the Universe all Ys, and from these to select all Xs, is the
same as to select at once from the Universe all Xs.
Hence
xy = x;
or
x(1 y) = 0: (4)
3. To express the Proposition, No Xs are Ys.
To assert that no Xs are Ys, is the same as to assert that there are
no terms common to the classes X and Y. Now all individuals common
to those classes are represented by xy. Hence the Proposition that No Xs
are Ys, is represented by the equation
xy = 0: (5)
4. To express the Proposition, Some Xs are Ys.
If some Xs are Ys, there are some terms common to the classes X and Y.
Let those terms constitute a separate class V, to which there shall corre-
spond a separate elective symbol v, then
v = xy: (6)
of expression and interpretation. 21
And as v includes all terms common to the classes X and Y, we can indif-
ferently interpret it, as Some Xs, or Some Ys.
5. To express the Proposition, Some Xs are not Ys.
In the last equation write 1 y for y, and we have
v = x(1 y); (7)
the interpretation of v being indifferently Some Xs or Some not-Ys.
The above equations involve the complete theory of categorical Propo-
sitions, and so far as respects the employment of analysis for the deduction
of logical inferences, nothing more can be desired. But it may be satisfac-
tory to notice some particular forms deducible from the third and fourth
equations, and susceptible of similar application.
If we multiply the equation (6) by x, we have
vx = x2y = xy by (3).
Comparing with (6), we find
v = vx;
or
v(1 x) = 0: (8)
And multiplying (6) by y, and reducing in a similar manner, we have
v = vy;
or
v(1 y) = 0: (9)
Comparing (8) and (9),
vx = vy = v: (10)
of expression and interpretation. 22
And further comparing (8) and (9) with (4), we have as the equivalent
of this system of equations the Propositions
All Vs are Xs
All Vs are Ys:
The system (10) might be used to replace (6), or the single equation
vx = vy; (11)
might be used, assigning to vx the interpretation, Some Xs, and to vy the
interpretation, Some Ys. But it will be observed that this system does not
express quite so much as the single equation (6), from which it is derived.
Both, indeed, express the Proposition, Some Xs are Ys, but the system (10)
does not imply that the class V includes all the terms that are common to
X and Y.
In like manner, from the equation (7) which expresses the Proposition
Some Xs are not Ys, we may deduce the system
vx = v(1 y) = v; (12)
in which the interpretation of v(1 y) is Some not-Ys. Since in this case
vy = 0, we must of course be careful not to interpret vy as Some Ys.
If we multiply the first equation of the system (12), viz.
vx = v(1 y);
by y, we have
vxy = vy(1 y);
) vxy = 0; (13)
which is a form that will occasionally present itself. It is not necessary to
revert to the primitive equation in order to interpret this, for the condition
of expression and interpretation. 23
that vx represents Some Xs, shews us by virtue of (5), that its import will
be
Some Xs are not Ys,
the subject comprising all the Xs that are found in the class V.
Universally in these cases, difference of form implies a difference of
interpretation with respect to the auxiliary symbol v, and each form is
interpretable by itself.
Further, these differences do not introduce into the Calculus a need-
less perplexity. It will hereafter be seen that they give a precision and a
definiteness to its conclusions, which could not otherwise be secured.
Finally, we may remark that all the equations by which particular truths
are expressed, are deducible from any one general equation, expressing
any one general Proposition, from which those particular Propositions are
necessary deductions. This has been partially shewn already, but it is much
more fully exemplified in the following scheme.
The general equation
x = y;
implies that the classes X and Y are equivalent, member for member; that
every individual belonging to the one, belongs to the other also. Multiply
the equation by x, and we have
x2 = xy;
) x = xy;
which implies, by (4), that all Xs are Ys. Multiply the same equation by y,
and we have in like manner
y = xy;
the import of which is, that all Ys are Xs. Take either of these equations,
the latter for instance, and writing it under the form
(1 x)y = 0;
of expression and interpretation. 24
we may regard it as an equation in which y, an unknown quantity, is sought
to be expressed in terms of x. Now it will be shewn when we come to treat
of the Solution of Elective Equations (and the result may here be verified
by substitution) that the most general solution of this equation is
y = vx;
which implies that All Ys are Xs, and that Some Xs are Ys. Multiply by x,
and we have
vy = vx;
which indifferently implies that some Ys are Xs and some Xs are Ys, being
the particular form at which we before arrived.
For convenience of reference the above and some other results have
been classified in the annexed Table, the first column of which contains
propositions, the second equations, and the third the conditions of final
interpretation. It is to be observed, that the auxiliary equations which are
given in this column are not independent: they are implied either in the
equations of the second column, or in the condition for the interpretation
of v. But it has been thought better to write them separately, for greater
ease and convenience. And it is further to be borne in mind, that although
three different forms are given for the expression of each of the particular
propositions, everything is really included in the first form.
of expression and interpretation. 25
TABLE.
The class X x
The class not-X 1 x
All Xs are Ys
All Ys are Xs) x = y
All Xs are Ys x(1 y) = 0
No Xs are Ys xy = 0
All Ys are Xs
Some Xs are Ys) y = vx
vx = Some Xs
v(1 x) = 0:
No Ys are Xs
Some not-Xs are Ys)y = v(1 x)
v(1 x) = some not-Xs
vx = 0:
Some Xs are Ys 8>
<>
:
v = xy
or vx = vy
or vx(1 y) = 0
v = some Xs or some Ys
vx = some Xs; vy = some Ys
v(1 x) = 0; v(1 y) = 0:
Some Xs are not Ys8><>:
v = x(1 y)
or vx = v(1 y)
or vxy = 0
v = some Xs, or some not-Ys
vx = some Xs; v(1 y) = some not-Ys
v(1 x) = 0; vy = 0:
OF THE CONVERSION OF PROPOSITIONS.
A Proposition is said to be converted when its terms are transposed; when
nothing more is done, this is called simple conversion; e. g.
No virtuous man is a tyrant, is converted into
No tyrant is a virtuous man.
Logicians also recognise conversion per accidens, or by limitation, e. g.
All birds are animals, is converted into
Some animals are birds.
And conversion by contraposition or negation, as
Every poet is a man of genius, converted into
He who is not a man of genius is not a poet.
In one of these three ways every Proposition may be illatively converted, viz.
E and I simply, A and O by negation, A and E by limitation.
The primary canonical forms already determined for the expression of
Propositions, are
All Xs are Ys, x(1 y) = 0; A
No Xs are Ys, xy = 0; E
Some Xs are Ys, v = xy; I
Some Xs are not Ys, v = x(1 y): O
On examining these, we perceive that E and I are symmetrical with
respect to x and y, so that x being changed into y, and y into x, the
equations remain unchanged. Hence E and I may be interpreted into
No Ys are Xs,
Some Ys are Xs,
of the conversion of propositions. 27
respectively. Thus we have the known rule of the Logicians, that particular
affirmative and universal negative Propositions admit of simple conversion.
The equations A and O may be written in the forms
(1 y)1 (1 x) = 0;
v = (1 y)1 (1 x) :
Now these are precisely the forms which we should have obtained if we
had in those equations changed x into 1y, and y into 1x, which would
have represented the changing in the original Propositions of the Xs into
not-Ys, and the Ys into not-Xs, the resulting Propositions being
All not-Ys are not-Xs,
Some not-Ys are not not-Xs. (a)
Or we may, by simply inverting the order of the factors in the second
member of O, and writing it in the form
v = (1 y)x;
interpret it by I into
Some not-Ys are Xs,
which is really another form of (a). Hence follows the rule, that universal
affirmative and particular negative Propositions admit of negative conver-
sion, or, as it is also termed, conversion by contraposition.
The equations A and E, written in the forms
(1 y)x = 0;
yx = 0;
give on solution the respective forms
x = vy;
x = v(1 y);
of the conversion of propositions. 28
the correctness of which may be shewn by substituting these values of x
in the equations to which they belong, and observing that those equations
are satisfied quite independently of the nature of the symbol v. The first
solution may be interpreted into
Some Ys are Xs,
and the second into
Some not-Ys are Xs.
From which it appears that universal-affirmative, and universal-negative
Propositions are convertible by limitation, or, as it has been termed, per
accidens.
The above are the laws of Conversion recognized by Abp. Whately.
Writers differ however as to the admissibility of negative conversion. The
question depends on whether we will consent to use such terms as not-
X, not-Y. Agreeing with those who think that such terms ought to be
admitted, even although they change the kind of the Proposition, I am
constrained to observe that the present classification of them is faulty and
defective. Thus the conversion of No Xs are Ys, into All Ys are not-Xs,
though perfectly legitimate, is not recognised in the above scheme. It may
therefore be proper to examine the subject somewhat more fully.
Should we endeavour, from the system of equations we have obtained,
to deduce the laws not only of the conversion, but also of the general
transformation of propositions, we should be led to recognise the following
distinct elements, each connected with a distinct mathematical process.
1st. The negation of a term, i. e. the changing of X into not-X, or not-X
into X.
2nd. The translation of a Proposition from one kind to another, as if
we should change
All Xs are Ys into Some Xs are Ys, A into I
which would be lawful; or
All Xs are Ys into No Xs are Ys, A into E
of the conversion of propositions. 29
which would be unlawful.
3rd. The simple conversion of a Proposition.
The conditions in obedience to which these processes may lawfully be
performed, may be deduced from the equations by which Propositions are
expressed.
We have
All Xs are Ys, x(1 y) = 0; A
No Xs are Ys, xy = 0: E
Write E in the form
x1 (1 y) = 0;
and it is interpretable by A into
All Xs are not-Ys,
so that we may change
No Xs are Ys into All Xs are not-Ys.
In like manner A interpreted by E gives
No Xs are not-Ys,
so that we may change
All Xs are Ys into No Xs are not-Ys.
From these cases we have the following Rule: A universal-affirmative
Proposition is convertible into a universal-negative, and, vice vers^a, by
negation of the predicate.
Again, we have
Some Xs are Ys, v = xy;
Some Xs are not Ys, v = x(1 y):
of the conversion of propositions. 30
These equations only differ from those last considered by the presence of
the term v. The same reasoning therefore applies, and we have the Rule|
A particular-affirmative proposition is convertible into a particular-
negative, and vice vers^a, by negation of the predicate.
Assuming the universal Propositions
All Xs are Ys, x(1 y) = 0;
No Xs are Ys, xy = 0:
Multiplying by v, we find
vx(1 y) = 0;
vxy = 0;
which are interpretable into
Some Xs are Ys, I
Some Xs are not Ys. O
Hence a universal-affirmative is convertible into a particular-affirmative,
and a universal-negative into a particular-negative without negation of sub-
ject or predicate.
Combining the above with the already proved rule of simple conversion,
we arrive at the following system of independent laws of transformation.
1st. An affirmative Proposition may be changed into its corresponding
negative (A into E, or I into O), and vice vers^a, by negation of the predicate.
2nd. A universal Proposition may be changed into its corresponding
particular Proposition, (A into I, or E into O).
3rd. In a particular-affirmative, or universal-negative Proposition, the
terms may be mutually converted.
Wherein negation of a term is the changing of X into not-X, and vice
vers^a, and is not to be understood as affecting the kind of the Proposition.
of the conversion of propositions. 31
Every lawful transformation is reducible to the above rules. Thus we
have
All Xs are Ys,
No Xs are not-Ys by 1st rule,
No not-Ys are Xs by 3rd rule,
All not-Ys are not-Xs by 1st rule,
which is an example of negative conversion. Again,
No Xs are Ys,
No Ys are Xs 3rd rule,
All Ys are not-Xs 1st rule,
which is the case already deduced.
OF SYLLOGISMS.
A Syllogism consists of three Propositions, the last of which, called the con-
clusion, is a logical consequence of the two former, called the premises; e. g.
Premises, aeAll Ys are Xs.
All Zs are Ys.
Conclusion, All Zs are Xs.
Every syllogism has three and only three terms, whereof that which is the
subject of the conclusion is called the minor term, the predicate of the conclu-
sion, the major term, and the remaining term common to both premises, the
middle term. Thus, in the above formula, Z is the minor term, X the major
term, Y the middle term.
The figure of a syllogism consists in the situation of the middle term with
respect to the terms of the conclusion. The varieties of figure are exhibited in
the annexed scheme.
1st Fig. 2nd Fig. 3rd Fig. 4th Fig.
YX XY YX XY
ZY ZY YZ YZ
ZX ZX ZX ZX
When we designate the three propositions of a syllogism by their usual sym-
bols (A, E, I, O), and in their actual order, we are said to determine the mood
of the syllogism. Thus the syllogism given above, by way of illustration, belongs
to the mood AAA in the first figure.
The moods of all syllogisms commonly received as valid, are represented by
the vowels in the following mnemonic verses.
Fig. 1.|bArbArA, cElArEnt, dArII, fErIO que prioris.
Fig. 2.|cEsArE, cAmEstrEs, fEstInO, bArOkO, secundae.
Fig. 3.|Tertia dArAptI, dIsAmIs, dAtIsI, fElAptOn,
bOkArdO, fErIsO, habet: quarta insuper addit.
of syllogisms. 33
Fig. 4.|brAmAntIp, cAmEnEs, dImArIs, fEsApO, frEsIsOn.
The equation by which we express any Proposition concerning the
classes X and Y, is an equation between the symbols x and y, and the equa-
tion by which we express any Proposition concerning the classes Y and Z,
is an equation between the symbols y and z. If from two such equations
we eliminate y, the result, if it do not vanish, will be an equation between
x and z, and will be interpretable into a Proposition concerning the classes
X and Z. And it will then constitute the third member, or Conclusion, of
a Syllogism, of which the two given Propositions are the premises.
The result of the elimination of y from the equations
ay + b = 0;
a0y + b0 = 0;
(14)
is the equation
ab0 a0b = 0: (15)
Now the equations of Propositions being of the first order with reference
to each of the variables involved, all the cases of elimination which we shall
have to consider, will be reducible to the above case, the constants a, b,
a0, b0, being replaced by functions of x, z, and the auxiliary symbol v.
As to the choice of equations for the expression of our premises, the
only restriction is, that the equations must not both be of the form ay = 0,
for in such cases elimination would be impossible. When both equations
are of this form, it is necessary to solve one of them, and it is indifferent
which we choose for this purpose. If that which we select is of the form
xy = 0, its solution is
y = v(1 x); (16)
if of the form (1 x)y = 0, the solution will be
y = vx; (17)
and these are the only cases which can arise. The reason of this exception
will appear in the sequel.
of syllogisms. 34
For the sake of uniformity we shall, in the expression of particular
propositions, confine ourselves to the forms
vx = vy; Some Xs are Ys,
vx = v(1 y); Some Xs are not Ys.
These have a closer analogy with (16) and (17), than the other forms which
might be used.
Between the forms about to be developed, and the Aristotelian canons,
some points of difference will occasionally be observed, of which it may be
proper to forewarn the reader.
To the right understanding of these it is proper to remark, that the
essential structure of a Syllogism is, in some measure, arbitrary. Supposing
the order of the premises to be fixed, and the distinction of the major and
the minor term to be thereby determined, it is purely a matter of choice
which of the two shall have precedence in the Conclusion. Logicians have
settled this question in favour of the minor term, but it is clear, that this
is a convention. Had it been agreed that the major term should have the
first place in the conclusion, a logical scheme might have been constructed,
less convenient in some cases than the existing one, but superior in others.
What it lost in barbara, it would gain in bramantip. Convenience is perhaps
in favour of the adopted arrangement,* but it is to be remembered that it
is merely an arrangement.
Now the method we shall exhibit, not having reference to one scheme
of arrangement more than to another, will always give the more general
conclusion, regard being paid only to its abstract lawfulness, considered
as a result of pure reasoning. And therefore we shall sometimes have pre-
sented to us the spectacle of conclusions, which a logician would pronounce
informal, but never of such as a reasoning being would account false.
The Aristotelian canons, however, beside restricting the order of the
terms of a conclusion, limit their nature also;|and this limitation is of
*The contrary view was maintained by Hobbes. The question is very fairly discussed
in Hallam's Introduction to the Literature of Europe, vol. iii. p. 309. In the rhetorical
use of Syllogism, the advantage appears to rest with the rejected form.
of syllogisms. 35
more consequence than the former. We may, by a change of figure, replace
the particular conclusion of bramantip by the general conclusion of barbara;
but we cannot thus reduce to rule such inferences, as
Some not-Xs are not Ys.
Yet there are cases in which such inferences may lawfully be drawn,
and in unrestricted argument they are of frequent occurrence. Now if an
inference of this, or of any other kind, is lawful in itself, it will be exhibited
in the results of our method.
We may by restricting the canon of interpretation confine our expressed
results within the limits of the scholastic logic; but this would only be
to restrict ourselves to the use of a part of the conclusions to which our
analysis entitles us.
The classification we shall adopt will be purely mathematical, and we
shall afterwards consider the logical arrangement to which it corresponds.
It will be sufficient, for reference, to name the premises and the Figure in
which they are found.
Class 1st.|Forms in which v does not enter.
Those which admit of an inference are AA, EA, Fig. 1; AE, EA, Fig. 2;
AA, AE, Fig. 4.
Ex. AA, Fig. 1, and, by mutation of premises (change of order),
AA, Fig. 4.
All Ys are Xs, y(1 x) = 0; or (1 x)y = 0;
All Zs are Ys, z(1 y) = 0; or zy z = 0:
Eliminating y by (13) we have
z(1 x) = 0;
) All Zs are Xs.
A convenient mode of effecting the elimination, is to write the equation
of the premises, so that y shall appear only as a factor of one member
of syllogisms. 36
in the first equation, and only as a factor of the opposite member in the
second equation, and then to multiply the equations, omitting the y. This
method we shall adopt.
Ex. AE, Fig. 2, and, by mutation of premises, EA, Fig. 2.
All Xs are Ys, x(1 y) = 0;
No Zs are Ys, zy = 0;
or x=xy;
zy =0;
zx=0;
) No Zs are Xs.
The only case in which there is no inference is AA, Fig. 2,
All Xs are Ys, x(1 y) = 0;
All Zs are Ys, z(1 y) = 0;
x=xy;
zy =z;
xz =xz;
) 0 = 0.
Class 2nd.|When v is introduced by the solution of an equation.
The lawful cases directly or indirectly* determinable by the Aristotelian
Rules are AE, Fig. 1; AA, AE, EA, Fig. 3; EA, Fig. 4.
The lawful cases not so determinable, are EE, Fig. 1; EE, Fig. 2; EE,
Fig. 3; EE, Fig. 4.
Ex. AE, Fig. 1, and, by mutation of premises, EA, Fig. 4.
All Ys are Xs, y(1 x) = 0;
No Zs are Ys, zy = 0;
y =vx; (a)
0=zy;
0=vzx;
) Some Xs are not Zs.
*We say directly or indirectly, mutation or conversion of premises being in some
instances required. Thus, AE (fig. 1) is resolvable by fesapo (fig. 4), or by ferio (fig. 1).
Aristotle and his followers rejected the fourth figure as only a modification of the first,
but this being a mere question of form, either scheme may be termed Aristotelian.
of syllogisms. 37
The reason why we cannot interpret vzx = 0 into Some Zs are not-Xs,
is that by the very terms of the first equation (a) the interpretation of vx
is fixed, as Some Xs; v is regarded as the representative of Some, only with
reference to the class X.
For the reason of our employing a solution of one of the primitive equa-
tions, see the remarks on (16) and (17). Had we solved the second equation
instead of the first, we should have had
(1 x)y = 0;
v(1 z) = y; (a)
v(1 z)(1 x) = 0; (b)
) Some not-Zs are Xs.
Here it is to be observed, that the second equation (a) fixes the meaning
of v(1 z), as Some not-Zs. The full meaning of the result (b) is, that all
the not-Zs which are found in the class Y are found in the class X, and it
is evident that this could not have been expressed in any other way.
Ex. 2. AA, Fig. 3.
All Ys are Xs, y(1 x) = 0;
All Ys are Zs, y(1 z) = 0;
y =vx;
0=y(1 z);
0=vx(1 z);
) Some Xs are Zs.
Had we solved the second equation, we should have had as our result,
Some Zs are Xs. The form of the final equation particularizes what Xs or
what Zs are referred to, and this remark is general.
The following, EE, Fig. 1, and, by mutation, EE, Fig. 4, is an example
of a lawful case not determinable by the Aristotelian Rules.
No Ys are Xs, xy = 0;
No Zs are Ys, zy = 0;
0=xy;
y =v(1 z);
0=v(1 z)x;
) Some not-Zs are not Xs.
of syllogisms. 38
Class 3rd.|When v is met with in one of the equations, but not
introduced by solution.
The lawful cases determinable directly or indirectly by the Aristotelian
Rules, are AI, EI, Fig. 1; AO, EI, OA, IE, Fig. 2; AI, AO, EI, EO, IA, IE,
OA, OE, Fig. 3; IA, IE, Fig. 4.
Those not so determinable are OE, Fig. 1; EO, Fig. 4.
The cases in which no inference is possible, are AO, EO, IA, IE, OA,
Fig. 1; AI, EO, IA, OE, Fig. 2; OA, OE, AI, EI, AO, Fig. 4.
Ex. 1. AI, Fig. 1, and, by mutation, IA, Fig. 4.
All Ys are Xs,
Some Zs are Ys,
y(1 x)=0;
vz =vy;
vz(1 x)=0;
) Some Zs are Xs.
Ex. 2. AO, Fig. 2, and, by mutation, OA, Fig. 2.
All Xs are Ys, x(1 y) = 0;
Some Zs are not Ys, vz = v(1 y);
x=xy;
vy =v(1 z);
vx=vx(1 z);
vxz =0;
) Some Zs are not Xs.
The interpretation of vz as Some Zs, is implied, it will be observed,
in the equation vz = v(1 y) considered as representing the proposition
Some Zs are not Ys.
The cases not determinable by the Aristotelian Rules are OE, Fig. 1,
and, by mutation, EO, Fig. 4.
Some Ys are not Xs,
No Zs are Ys,
vy =v(1 x);
0=zy;
0=v(1 x)z;
) Some not-Xs are not Zs.
of syllogisms. 39
The equation of the first premiss here permits us to interpret v(1x),
but it does not enable us to interpret vz.
Of cases in which no inference is possible, we take as examples|
AO, Fig. 1, and, by mutation, OA, Fig. 4.
All Ys are Xs, y(1 x) = 0;
Some Zs are not Ys, vz = v(1 y); (a)
y(1 x)=0;
v(1 z)=vy;
v(1 z)(1 x)=0; (b)
0=0;
since the auxiliary equation in this case is v(1 z) = 0.
Practically it is not necessary to perform this reduction, but it is sat-
isfactory to do so. The equation (a), it is seen, defines vz as Some Zs, but
it does not define v(1 z), so that we might stop at the result of elimina-
tion (b), and content ourselves with saying, that it is not interpretable into
a relation between the classes X and Z.
Take as a second example AI, Fig. 2, and, by mutation, IA, Fig. 2.
All Xs are Ys, x(1 y) = 0;
Some Zs are Ys, vz = vy;
x=xy;
vy =vz;
vx=vxz;
v(1 z)x=0;
0=0;
the auxiliary equation in this case being v(1 z) = 0.
Indeed in every case in this class, in which no inference is possible, the
result of elimination is reducible to the form 0 = 0. Examples therefore
need not be multiplied.
Class 4th.|When v enters into both equations.
No inference is possible in any case, but there exists a distinction among
the unlawful cases which is peculiar to this class. The two divisions are,
of syllogisms. 40
1st. When the result of elimination is reducible by the auxiliary equa-
tions to the form 0 = 0. The cases are II, OI, Fig. 1; II, OO, Fig. 2; II, IO,
OI, OO, Fig. 3; II, IO, Fig. 4.
2nd. When the result of elimination is not reducible by the auxiliary
equations to the form 0 = 0.
The cases are IO, OO, Fig. 1; IO, OI, Fig. 2; OI, OO, Fig. 4.
Let us take as an example of the former case, II, Fig. 3.
Some Xs are Ys, vx = vy;
Some Zs are Ys, v0z = v0y;
vx=vy;
v0y =v0z;
vv0x=vv0z:
Now the auxiliary equations v(1 x) = 0, v0(1 z) = 0, give
vx = v; v0z = v0:
Substituting we have
vv0 = vv0;
) 0 = 0:
As an example of the latter case, let us take IO, Fig. 1.
Some Ys are Xs, vy = vx;
Some Zs are not Ys, v0z = v0(1 y);
vy =vx;
v0(1 z)=v0y;
vv0(1 z)=vv0x:
Now the auxiliary equations being v(1x) = 0, v0(1z) = 0, the above
reduces to vv0 = 0. It is to this form that all similar cases are reducible.
Its interpretation is, that the classes v and v0 have no common member, as
is indeed evident.
The above classification is purely founded on mathematical distinctions.
We shall now inquire what is the logical division to which it corresponds.
of syllogisms. 41
The lawful cases of the first class comprehend all those in which, from
two universal premises, a universal conclusion may be drawn. We see that
they include the premises of barbara and celarent in the first figure, of
cesare and camestres in the second, and of bramantip and camenes in the
fourth. The premises of bramantip are included, because they admit of an
universal conclusion, although not in the same figure.
The lawful cases of the second class are those in which a particular
conclusion only is deducible from two universal premises.
The lawful cases of the third class are those in which a conclusion
is deducible from two premises, one of which is universal and the other
particular.
The fourth class has no lawful cases.
Among the cases in which no inference of any kind is possible, we find
six in the fourth class distinguishable from the others by the circumstance,
that the result of elimination does not assume the form 0 = 0. The cases
are
aeSome Ys are Xs,
Some Zs are not Ys, aeSome Ys are not Xs,
Some Zs are not Ys, aeSome Xs are Ys,
Some Zs are not Ys,
and the three others which are obtained by mutation of premises.
It might be presumed that some logical peculiarity would be found to
answer to the mathematical peculiarity which we have noticed, and in fact
there exists a very remarkable one. If we examine each pair of premises
in the above scheme, we shall find that there is virtually no middle term,
i. e. no medium of comparison, in any of them. Thus, in the first example,
the individuals spoken of in the first premiss are asserted to belong to the
class Y, but those spoken of in the second premiss are virtually asserted
to belong to the class not-Y: nor can we by any lawful transformation or
conversion alter this state of things. The comparison will still be made
with the class Y in one premiss, and with the class not-Y in the other.
Now in every case beside the above six, there will be found a middle
term, either expressed or implied. I select two of the most difficult cases.
of syllogisms. 42
In AO, Fig. 1, viz.
All Ys are Xs,
Some Zs are not Ys,
we have, by negative conversion of the first premiss,
All not-Xs are not-Ys,
Some Zs are not Ys,
and the middle term is now seen to be not-Y.
Again, in EO, Fig. 1,
No Ys are Xs,
Some Zs are not Ys,
a proved conversion of the first premiss (see Conversion of Propositions),
gives
All Xs are not-Ys,
Some Zs are not-Ys,
and the middle term, the true medium of comparison, is plainly not-Y,
although as the not-Ys in the one premiss may be different from those in
the other, no conclusion can be drawn.
The mathematical condition in question, therefore,|the irreducibility
of the final equation to the form 0 = 0,|adequately represents the logical
condition of there being no middle term, or common medium of compari-
son, in the given premises.
I am not aware that the distinction occasioned by the presence or ab-
sence of a middle term, in the strict sense here understood, has been noticed
by logicians before. The distinction, though real and deserving attention,
is indeed by no means an obvious one, and it would have been unnoticed in
the present instance but for the peculiarity of its mathematical expression.
of syllogisms. 43
What appears to be novel in the above case is the proof of the existence
of combinations of premises in which there is absolutely no medium of com-
parison. When such a medium of comparison, or true middle term, does
exist, the condition that its quantification in both premises together shall
exceed its quantification as a single whole, has been ably and clearly shewn
by Professor De Morgan to be necessary to lawful inference (Cambridge
Memoirs, Vol. viii. Part 3). And this is undoubtedly the true principle of
the Syllogism, viewed from the standing-point of Arithmetic.
I have said that it would be possible to impose conditions of interpre-
tation which should restrict the results of this calculus to the Aristotelian
forms. Those conditions would be,
1st. That we should agree not to interpret the forms v(1x), v(1z).
2ndly. That we should agree to reject every interpretation in which the
order of the terms should violate the Aristotelian rule.
Or, instead of the second condition, it might be agreed that, the con-
clusion being determined, the order of the premises should, if necessary, be
changed, so as to make the syllogism formal.
From the general character of the system it is indeed plain, that it may
be made to represent any conceivable scheme of logic, by imposing the
conditions proper to the case contemplated.
We have found it, in a certain class of cases, to be necessary to replace
the two equations expressive of universal Propositions, by their solutions;
and it may be proper to remark, that it would have been allowable in all
instances to have done this,* so that every case of the Syllogism, without
*It may be satisfactory to illustrate this statement by an example. In barbara, we
should have
All Ys are Xs,
All Zs are Ys,
y =vx;
z =v0y;
z =vv0x;
) All Zs are Xs.
Or, we may multiply the resulting equation by 1 x, which gives
z(1 x) = 0;
of syllogisms. 44
whence the same conclusion, All Zs are Xs.
Some additional examples of the application of the system of equations in the text to
the demonstration of general theorems, may not be inappropriate.
Let y be the term to be eliminated, and let x stand indifferently for either of the other
symbols, then each of the equations of the premises of any given syllogism may be put
in the form
ay + bx = 0; (ff)
if the premiss is affirmative, and in the form
ay + b(1 x) = 0; (fi)
if it is negative, a and b being either constant, or of the form v. To prove this in detail,
let us examine each kind of proposition, making y successively subject and predicate.
A; All Ys are Xs, y vx = 0; (
)
All Xs are Ys, x vy = 0; (ffi)
E; No Ys are Xs, xy = 0;
No Xs are Ys, y v(1 x) = 0; (")
I; Some Xs are Ys,
Some Ys are Xs, vx vy = 0; ()
O; Some Ys are not Xs, vy v(1 x) = 0; ()
Some Xs are not Ys, vx = v(1 y);
) vy v(1 x) = 0: ()
The affirmative equations (
), (ffi) and (), belong to (ff), and the negative equations
("), () and (), to (fi). It is seen that the two last negative equations are alike, but
there is a difference of interpretation. In the former
v(1 x) = Some not-Xs,
in the latter,
v(1 x) = 0:
The utility of the two general forms of reference, (ff) and (fi), will appear from the
following application.
1st. A conclusion drawn from two affirmative propositions is itself affirmative.
By (ff) we have for the given propositions,
ay + bx = 0;
a0y + b0z = 0;
of syllogisms. 45
exception, might have been treated by equations comprised in the general
and eliminating
ab0z a0bx = 0;
which is of the form (ff). Hence, if there is a conclusion, it is affirmative.
2nd. A conclusion drawn from an affirmative and a negative proposition is negative.
By (ff) and (fi), we have for the given propositions
ay + bx = 0;
a0y + b0(1 z) = 0;
) a0bx ab0(1 z) = 0;
which is of the form (fi). Hence the conclusion, if there is one, is negative.
3rd. A conclusion drawn from two negative premises will involve a negation, (not-X,
not-Z) in both subject and predicate, and will therefore be inadmissible in the Aristotelian
system, though just in itself.
For the premises being
ay + b(1 x) = 0;
a0y + b0(1 z) = 0;
the conclusion will be
ab0(1 z) a0b(1 x) = 0;
which is only interpretable into a proposition that has a negation in each term.
4th. Taking into account those syllogisms only, in which the conclusion is the most
general, that can be deduced from the premises,|if, in an Aristotelian syllogism, the
minor premises be changed in quality (from affirmative to negative or from negative to
affirmative), whether it be changed in quantity or not, no conclusion will be deducible
in the same figure.
An Aristotelian proposition does not admit a term of the form not-Z in the subject,|
Now on changing the quantity of the minor proposition of a syllogism, we transfer it
from the general form
ay + bz = 0;
to the general form
a0y + b0(1 z) = 0;
of syllogisms. 46
forms
y = vx; or y vx = 0; A
y = v(1 x); or y + vx v = 0; E
vy = vx; vy vx = 0; I
vy = v(1 x); vy + vx v = 0: O
Perhaps the system we have actually employed is better, as distinguish-
ing the cases in which v only may be employed, from those in which it must.
But for the demonstration of certain general properties of the Syllogism,
the above system is, from its simplicity, and from the mutual analogy of
its forms, very convenient. We shall apply it to the following theorem.*
see (ff) and (fi), or vice vers^a. And therefore, in the equation of the conclusion, there
will be a change from z to 1 z, or vice vers^a. But this is equivalent to the change
of Z into not-Z, or not-Z into Z. Now the subject of the original conclusion must have
involved a Z and not a not-Z, therefore the subject of the new conclusion will involve
a not-Z, and the conclusion will not be admissible in the Aristotelian forms, except by
conversion, which would render necessary a change of Figure.
Now the conclusions of this calculus are always the most general that can be drawn,
and therefore the above demonstration must not be supposed to extend to a syllogism,
in which a particular conclusion is deduced, when a universal one is possible. This is the
case with bramantip only, among the Aristotelian forms, and therefore the transforma-
tion of bramantip into camenes, and vice vers^a, is the case of restriction contemplated
in the preliminary statement of the theorem.
5th. If for the minor premiss of an Aristotelian syllogism, we substitute its contra-
dictory, no conclusion is deducible in the same figure.
It is here only necessary to examine the case of bramantip, all the others being deter-
mined by the last proposition.
On changing the minor of bramantip to its contradictory, we have AO, Fig. 4, and
this admits of no legitimate inference.
Hence the theorem is true without exception. Many other general theorems may in
like manner be proved.
*This elegant theorem was communicated by the Rev. Charles Graves, Fellow and
Professor of Mathematics in Trinity College, Dublin, to whom the Author desires further
to record his grateful acknowledgments for a very judicious examination of the former
portion of this work, and for some new applications of the method. The following
of syllogisms. 47
Given the three propositions of a Syllogism, prove that there is but
one order in which they can be legitimately arranged, and determine that
order.
All the forms above given for the expression of propositions, are par-
ticular cases of the general form,
a + bx + cy = 0:
Assume then for the premises of the given syllogism, the equations
a + bx + cy = 0; (18)
a0 + b0z + c0y = 0; (19)
then, eliminating y, we shall have for the conclusion
ac0 a0c + bc0x b0cz = 0: (20)
Now taking this as one of our premises, and either of the original equa-
tions, suppose (18), as the other, if by elimination of a common term x,
example of Reduction ad impossibile is among the number:
Reducend Mood, All Xs are Ys, 1 y =v0(1 x);
baroko Some Zs are not Ys, vz =v(1 y);
Some Zs are not Xs, vz =vv0(1 x);
Reduct Mood, All Xs are Ys, 1 y =v0(1 x);
barbara All Zs are Xs, z(1 x)=0;
All Zs are Ys, z(1 y)=0:
The conclusion of the reduct mood is seen to be the contradictory of the suppressed
minor premiss. Whence, &c. It may just be remarked that the mathematical test of
contradictory propositions is, that on eliminating one elective symbol between their
equations, the other elective symbol vanishes. The ostensive reduction of baroko and
bokardo involves no difficulty.
Professor Graves suggests the employment of the equation x = vy for the primary
expression of the Proposition All Xs are Ys, and remarks, that on multiplying both
members by 1 y, we obtain x(1 y) = 0, the equation from which we set out in the
text, and of which the previous one is a solution.
of syllogisms. 48
between them, we can obtain a result equivalent to the remaining pre-
miss (19), it will appear that there are more than one order in which the
Propositions may be lawfully written; but if otherwise, one arrangement
only is lawful.
Effecting then the elimination, we have
bc(a0 + b0z + c0y) = 0; (21)
which is equivalent to (19) multiplied by a factor bc. Now on examining
the value of this factor in the equations A, E, I, O, we find it in each case
to be v or v. But it is evident, that if an equation expressing a given
Proposition be multiplied by an extraneous factor, derived from another
equation, its interpretation will either be limited or rendered impossible.
Thus there will either be no result at all, or the result will be a limitation
of the remaining Proposition.
If, however, one of the original equations were
x = y; or x y = 0;
the factor bc would be 1, and would not limit the interpretation of the
other premiss. Hence if the first member of a syllogism should be un-
derstood to represent the double proposition All Xs are Ys, and All Ys
are Xs, it would be indifferent in what order the remaining Propositions
were written.
A more general form of the above investigation would be, to express
the premises by the equations
a + bx + cy + dxy = 0; (22)
a0 + b0z + c0y + d0zy = 0: (23)
After the double elimination of y and x we should find
(bc ad)(a0 + b0z + c0y + d0zy) = 0;
and it would be seen that the factor bcad must in every case either vanish
or express a limitation of meaning.
The determination of the order of the Propositions is sufficiently obvi-
ous.
OF HYPOTHETICALS.
A hypothetical Proposition is defined to be two or more categoricals united
by a copula (or conjunction), and the different kinds of hypothetical Propositions
are named from their respective conjunctions, viz. conditional (if), disjunctive
(either, or), &c.
In conditionals, that categorical Proposition from which the other results is
called the antecedent, that which results from it the consequent.
Of the conditional syllogism there are two, and only two formulae.
1st. The constructive,
If A is B, then C is D,
But A is B, therefore C is D.
2nd. The Destructive,
If A is B, then C is D,
But C is not D, therefore A is not B.
A dilemma is a complex conditional syllogism, with several antecedents in
the major, and a disjunctive minor.
If we examine either of the forms of conditional syllogism above given,
we shall see that the validity of the argument does not depend upon any
considerations which have reference to the terms A, B, C, D, considered
as the representatives of individuals or of classes. We may, in fact, repre-
sent the Propositions A is B, C is D, by the arbitrary symbols X and Y
respectively, and express our syllogisms in such forms as the following:
If X is true, then Y is true,
But X is true, therefore Y is true.
Thus, what we have to consider is not objects and classes of objects,
but the truths of Propositions, namely, of those elementary Propositions
which are embodied in the terms of our hypothetical premises.
of hypotheticals. 50
To the symbols X, Y, Z, representative of Propositions, we may appro-
priate the elective symbols x, y, z, in the following sense.
The hypothetical Universe, 1, shall comprehend all conceivable cases
and conjunctures of circumstances.
The elective symbol x attached to any subject expressive of such cases
shall select those cases in which the Proposition X is true, and similarly
for Y and Z.
If we confine ourselves to the contemplation of a given proposition X,
and hold in abeyance every other consideration, then two cases only are
conceivable, viz. first that the given Proposition is true, and secondly that it
is false.* As these cases together make up the Universe of the Proposition,
and as the former is determined by the elective symbol x, the latter is
determined by the symbol 1 x.
But if other considerations are admitted, each of these cases will be
resolvable into others, individually less extensive, the number of which will
depend upon the number of foreign considerations admitted. Thus if we
associate the Propositions X and Y, the total number of conceivable cases
*It was upon the obvious principle that a Proposition is either true or false, that
the Stoics, applying it to assertions respecting future events, endeavoured to establish
the doctrine of Fate. It has been replied to their argument, that it involves \an abuse of
the word true, the precise meaning of which is id quod res est. An assertion respecting
the future is neither true nor false."|Copleston on Necessity and Predestination, p. 36.
Were the Stoic axiom, however, presented under the form, It is either certain that a
given event will take place, or certain that it will not; the above reply would fail to meet
the difficulty. The proper answer would be, that no merely verbal definition can settle
the question, what is the actual course and constitution of Nature. When we affirm
that it is either certain that an event will take place, or certain that it will not take
place, we tacitly assume that the order of events is necessary, that the Future is but
an evolution of the Present; so that the state of things which is, completely determines
that which shall be. But this (at least as respects the conduct of moral agents) is the
very question at issue. Exhibited under its proper form, the Stoic reasoning does not
involve an abuse of terms, but a petitio principii.
It should be added, that enlightened advocates of the doctrine of Necessity in the
present day, viewing the end as appointed only in and through the means, justly repu-
diate those practical ill consequences which are the reproach of Fatalism.
of hypotheticals. 51
will be found as exhibited in the following scheme.
Cases. Elective expressions.
1st X true, Y true, xy;
2nd X true, Y false, x(1 y);
3rd X false, Y true, (1 x)y;
4th X false, Y false, (1 x)(1 y): (24)
If we add the elective expressions for the two first of the above cases the
sum is x, which is the elective symbol appropriate to the more general case
of X being true independently of any consideration of Y; and if we add the
elective expressions in the two last cases together, the result is 1x, which
is the elective expression appropriate to the more general case of X being
false.
Thus the extent of the hypothetical Universe does not at all depend
upon the number of circumstances which are taken into account. And it
is to be noted that however few or many those circumstances may be, the
sum of the elective expressions representing every conceivable case will be
unity. Thus let us consider the three Propositions, X, It rains, Y, It hails,
Z, It freezes. The possible cases are the following:
Cases. Elective expressions.
1st It rains, hails, and freezes, xyz;
2nd It rains and hails, but does not freeze, xy(1 z);
3rd It rains and freezes, but does not hail, xz(1 y);
4th It freezes and hails, but does not rain, yz(1 x);
5th It rains, but neither hails nor freezes, x(1 y)(1 z);
6th It hails, but neither rains nor freezes, y(1 x)(1 z);
7th It freezes, but neither hails nor rains, z(1 x)(1 y);
8th It neither rains, hails, nor freezes, (1 x)(1 y)(1 z);
1 = sum.
of hypotheticals. 52
Expression of Hypothetical Propositions.
To express that a given Proposition X is true.
The symbol 1x selects those cases in which the Proposition X is false.
But if the Proposition is true, there are no such cases in its hypothetical
Universe, therefore
1 x = 0;
or
x = 1: (25)
To express that a given Proposition X is false.
The elective symbol x selects all those cases in which the Proposition
is true, and therefore if the Proposition is false,
x = 0: (26)
And in every case, having determined the elective expression appro-
priate to a given Proposition, we assert the truth of that Proposition by
equating the elective expression to unity, and its falsehood by equating the
same expression to 0.
To express that two Propositions, X and Y, are simultaneously true.
The elective symbol appropriate to this case is xy, therefore the equa-
tion sought is
xy = 1: (27)
To express that two Propositions, X and Y, are simultaneously false.
The condition will obviously be
(1 x)(1 y) = 1;
or
x + y xy = 0: (28)
of hypotheticals. 53
To express that either the Proposition X is true, or the Proposition Y
is true.
To assert that either one or the other of two Propositions is true, is
to assert that it is not true, that they are both false. Now the elective
expression appropriate to their both being false is (1x)(1y), therefore
the equation required is
(1 x)(1 y) = 0;
or
x + y xy = 1: (29)
And, by indirect considerations of this kind, may every disjunctive
Proposition, however numerous its members, be expressed. But the fol-
lowing general Rule will usually be preferable.
Rule. Consider what are those distinct and mutually exclusive cases
of which it is implied in the statement of the given Proposition, that some
one of them is true, and equate the sum of their elective expressions to
unity. This will give the equation of the given Proposition.
For the sum of the elective expressions for all distinct conceivable cases
will be unity. Now all these cases being mutually exclusive, and it being
asserted in the given Proposition that some one case out of a given set of
them is true, it follows that all which are not included in that set are false,
and that their elective expressions are severally equal to 0. Hence the sum
of the elective expressions for the remaining cases, viz. those included in
the given set, will be unity. Some one of those cases will therefore be true,
and as they are mutually exclusive, it is impossible that more than one
should be true. Whence the Rule in question.
And in the application of this Rule it is to be observed, that if the
cases contemplated in the given disjunctive Proposition are not mutually
exclusive, they must be resolved into an equivalent series of cases which
are mutually exclusive.
of hypotheticals. 54
Thus, if we take the Proposition of the preceding example, viz. Either
X is true, or Y is true, and assume that the two members of this Proposition
are not exclusive, insomuch that in the enumeration of possible cases, we
must reckon that of the Propositions X and Y being both true, then the
mutually exclusive cases which fill up the Universe of the Proposition, with
their elective expressions, are
1st, X true and Y false, x(1 y);
2nd, Y true and X false, y(1 x);
3rd, X true and Y true, xy;
and the sum of these elective expressions equated to unity gives
x + y xy = 1; (30)
as before. But if we suppose the members of the disjunctive Proposition
to be exclusive, then the only cases to be considered are
1st, X true, Y false, x(1 y);
2nd, Y true, X false, y(1 x);
and the sum of these elective expressions equated to 0, gives
x 2xy + y = 1: (31)
The subjoined examples will further illustrate this method.
To express the Proposition, Either X is not true, or Y is not true, the
members being exclusive.
The mutually exclusive cases are
1st, X not true, Y true, y(1 x);
2nd, Y not true, X true, x(1 y);
and the sum of these equated to unity gives
x 2xy + y = 1; (32)
of hypotheticals. 55
which is the same as (31), and in fact the Propositions which they represent
are equivalent.
To express the Proposition, Either X is not true, or Y is not true, the
members not being exclusive.
To the cases contemplated in the last Example, we must add the fol-
lowing, viz.
X not true, Y not true, (1 x)(1 y):
The sum of the elective expressions gives
x(1 y) + y(1 x) + (1 x)(1 y) = 1;
or
xy = 0: (33)
To express the disjunctive Proposition, Either X is true, or Y is true,
or Z is true, the members being exclusive.
Here the mutually exclusive cases are
1st, X true, Y false, Z false, x(1 y)(1 z);
2nd, Y true, Z false, X false, y(1 z)(1 x);
3rd, Z true, X false, Y false, z(1 x)(1 y);
and the sum of the elective expressions equated to 1, gives, upon reduction,
x + y + z 2(xy + yz + zx) + 3xyz = 1: (34)
The expression of the same Proposition, when the members are in no
sense exclusive, will be
(1 x)(1 y)(1 z) = 0: (35)
of hypotheticals. 56
And it is easy to see that our method will apply to the expression of any
similar Proposition, whose members are subject to any specified amount
and character of exclusion.
To express the conditional Proposition, If X is true, Y is true.
Here it is implied that all the cases of X being true, are cases of Y being
true. The former cases being determined by the elective symbol x, and the
latter by y, we have, in virtue of (4),
x(1 y) = 0: (36)
To express the conditional Proposition, If X be true, Y is not true.
The equation is obviously
xy = 0; (37)
this is equivalent to (33), and in fact the disjunctive Proposition, Either
X is not true, or Y is not true, and the conditional Proposition, If X is
true, Y is not true, are equivalent.
To express that If X is not true, Y is not true.
In (36) write 1 x for x, and 1 y for y, we have
(1 x)y = 0:
The results which we have obtained admit of verification in many dif-
ferent ways. Let it suffice to take for more particular examination the
equation
x 2xy + y = 1; (38)
which expresses the conditional Proposition, Either X is true, or Y is true,
the members being in this case exclusive.
First, let the Proposition X be true, then x = 1, and substituting, we
have
1 2y + y = 1; ) y = 0; or y = 0;
which implies that Y is not true.
of hypotheticals. 57
Secondly, let X be not true, then x = 0, and the equation gives
y = 1; (39)
which implies that Y is true. In like manner we may proceed with the
assumptions that Y is true, or that Y is false.
Again, in virtue of the property x2 = x, y2 = y, we may write the
equation in the form
x2 2xy + y2 = 1;
and extracting the square root, we have
x y = 1; (40)
and this represents the actual case; for, as when X is true or false, Y is
respectively false or true, we have
x = 1 or 0;
y = 0 or 1;
) x y = 1 or 1:
There will be no difficulty in the analysis of other cases.
Examples of Hypothetical Syllogism.
The treatment of every form of hypothetical Syllogism will consist in
forming the equations of the premises, and eliminating the symbol or sym-
bols which are found in more than one of them. The result will express the
conclusion.
of hypotheticals. 58
1st. Disjunctive Syllogism.
Either X is true, or Y is true (exclusive), x + y 2xy = 1;
But X is true, x = 1;
Therefore Y is not true, ) y = 0:
Either X is true, or Y is true (not exclusive), x + y xy = 1;
But X is not true, x = 0;
Therefore Y is true, ) y = 1:
2nd. Constructive Conditional Syllogism.
If X is true, Y is true, x(1 y) = 0;
But X is true, x = 1;
Therefore Y is true, ) 1 y = 0 or y = 1:
3rd. Destructive Conditional Syllogism.
If X is true, Y is true, x(1 y) = 0;
But Y is not true, y = 0;
Therefore X is not true, ) x = 0:
4th. Simple Constructive Dilemma, the minor premiss exclusive.
If X is true, Y is true, x(1 y) = 0; (41)
If Z is true, Y is true, z(1 y) = 0; (42)
But Either X is true, or Z is true, x + z 2xz = 1: (43)
From the equations (41), (42), (43), we have to eliminate x and z. In
whatever way we effect this, the result is
y = 1;
whence it appears that the Proposition Y is true.
of hypotheticals. 59
5th. Complex Constructive Dilemma, the minor premiss not exclusive.
If X is true, Y is true, x(1 y) = 0;
If W is true, Z is true, w(1 z) = 0;
Either X is true, or W is true, x + w xw = 1:
From these equations, eliminating x, we have
y + z yz = 1;
which expresses the Conclusion, Either Y is true, or Z is true, the members
being nonexclusive.
6th. Complex Destructive Dilemma, the minor premiss exclusive.
If X is true, Y is true, x(1 y) = 0;
If W is true, Z is true, w(1 z) = 0;
Either Y is not true, or Z is not true, y + z 2yz = 1:
From these equations we must eliminate y and z. The result is
xw = 0;
which expresses the Conclusion, Either X is not true, or Y is not true, the
members not being exclusive.
7th. Complex Destructive Dilemma, the minor premiss not exclusive.
If X is true, Y is true, x(1 y) = 0;
If W is true, Z is true, w(1 z) = 0;
Either Y is not true, or Z is not true, yz = 0:
On elimination of y and z, we have
xw = 0;
which indicates the same Conclusion as the previous example.
of hypotheticals. 60
It appears from these and similar cases, that whether the members of
the minor premiss of a Dilemma are exclusive or not, the members of the
(disjunctive) Conclusion are never exclusive. This fact has perhaps escaped
the notice of logicians.
The above are the principal forms of hypothetical Syllogism which lo-
gicians have recognised. It would be easy, however, to extend the list,
especially by the blending of the disjunctive and the conditional character
in the same Proposition, of which the following is an example.
If X is true, then either Y is true, or Z is true,
x(1 y z + yz) = 0;
But Y is not true, y = 0;
Therefore If X is true, Z is true, ) x(1 z) = 0:
That which logicians term a Causal Proposition is properly a condi-
tional Syllogism, the major premiss of which is suppressed.
The assertion that the Proposition X is true, because the Proposition Y
is true, is equivalent to the assertion,
The Proposition Y is true,
Therefore the Proposition X is true;
and these are the minor premiss and conclusion of the conditional Syllo-
gism,
If Y is true, X is true,
But Y is true,
Therefore X is true.
And thus causal Propositions are seen to be included in the applications
of our general method.
Note, that there is a family of disjunctive and conditional Propositions,
which do not, of right, belong to the class considered in this Chapter.
of hypotheticals. 61
Such are those in which the force of the disjunctive or conditional particle
is expended upon the predicate of the Proposition, as if, speaking of the
inhabitants of a particular island, we should say, that they are all either
Europeans or Asiatics; meaning, that it is true of each individual, that he
is either a European or an Asiatic. If we appropriate the elective symbol x
to the inhabitants, y to Europeans, and z to Asiatics, then the equation of
the above Proposition is
x = xy + xz; or x(1 y z) = 0; (a)
to which we might add the condition yz = 0, since no Europeans are
Asiatics. The nature of the symbols x, y, z, indicates that the Proposition
belongs to those which we have before designated as Categorical. Very
different from the above is the Proposition, Either all the inhabitants are
Europeans, or they are all Asiatics. Here the disjunctive particle separates
Propositions. The case is that contemplated in (31) of the present Chapter;
and the symbols by which it is expressed, although subject to the same laws
as those of (a), have a totally different interpretation.*
The distinction is real and important. Every Proposition which lan-
guage can express may be represented by elective symbols, and the laws of
combination of those symbols are in all cases the same; but in one class of
instances the symbols have reference to collections of objects, in the other,
to the truths of constituent Propositions.
*Some writers, among whom is Dr. Latham (First Outlines), regard it as the exclu-
sive office of a conjunction to connect Propositions, not words. In this view I am not
able to agree. The Proposition, Every animal is either rational or irrational, cannot be
resolved into, Either every animal is rational, or every animal is irrational. The former
belongs to pure categoricals, the latter to hypotheticals. In singular Propositions, such
conversions would seem to be allowable. This animal is either rational or irrational,
is equivalent to, Either this animal is rational, or it is irrational. This peculiarity of
singular Propositions would almost justify our ranking them, though truly universals,
in a separate class, as Ramus and his followers did.
PROPERTIES OF ELECTIVE FUNCTIONS.
Since elective symbols combine according to the laws of quantity, we
may, by Maclaurin's theorem, expand a given function (x), in ascending
powers of x, known cases of failure excepted. Thus we have
(x) = (0) + 0(0)x +
00(0)
1 2
x2 + &c: (44)
Now x2 = x, x3 = x, &c., whence
(x) = (0) + x0(0) +
00(0)
1 2
+ &c: : (45)
Now if in (44) we make x = 1, we have
(1) = (0) + 0(0) +
00(0)
1 2
+ &c:;
whence
0(0) +
00(0)
1 2
+
000(0)
1 2 3
+ &c: = (1) (0):
Substitute this value for the coefficient of x in the second member
of (45), and we have*
(x) = (0) + (1) (0) x; (46)
*Although this and the following theorems have only been proved for those forms of
functions which are expansible by Maclaurin's theorem, they may be regarded as true
for all forms whatever; this will appear from the applications. The reason seems to be
that, as it is only through the one form of expansion that elective functions become
interpretable, no con
icting interpretation is possible.
The development of (x) may also be determined thus. By the known formula for
expansion in factorials,
(x) = (0) + (0)x +
2(0)
1 2 x(x 1) + &c:
properties of elective functions. 63
which we shall also employ under the form
(x) = (1)x + (0)(1 x): (47)
Every function of x, in which integer powers of that symbol are alone
involved, is by this theorem reducible to the first order. The quantities
(0), (1), we shall call the moduli of the function (x). They are of great
importance in the theory of elective functions, as will appear from the
succeeding Propositions.
Prop. 1. Any two functions (x), (x), are equivalent, whose corre-
sponding moduli are equal.
This is a plain consequence of the last Proposition. For since
(x) = (0) + (1) (0) x;
(x) = (0) + (1) (0) x;
it is evident that if (0) = (0), (1) = (1), the two expansions will
be equivalent, and therefore the functions which they represent will be
equivalent also.
Now x being an elective symbol, x(x 1) = 0, so that all the terms after the second,
vanish. Also (0) = (1) (0), whence
x = (0) + (1) (0) x:
The mathematician may be interested in the remark, that this is not the only case
in which an expansion stops at the second term. The expansions of the compound
operative functions d
dx
+ x1 and (x + d
dx1) are, respectively,
d
dx+ 0 d
dxx1;
and
(x) + 0(x) d
dx1
:
See Cambridge Mathematical Journal, Vol. iv. p. 219.
properties of elective functions. 64
The converse of this Proposition is equally true, viz.
If two functions are equivalent, their corresponding moduli are equal.
Among the most important applications of the above theorem, we may
notice the following.
Suppose it required to determine for what forms of the function (x),
the following equation is satisfied, viz.
(x) n
= (x):
Here we at once obtain for the expression of the conditions in question,
(0) n
= (0); (1) n
= (1): (48)
Again, suppose it required to determine the conditions under which the
following equation is satisfied, viz.
(x) (x) = (x):
The general theorem at once gives
(0) (0) = (0); (1) (1) = (1): (49)
This result may also be proved by substituting for (x), (x), (x),
their expanded forms, and equating the coefficients of the resulting equa-
tion properly reduced.
All the above theorems may be extended to functions of more than
one symbol. For, as different elective symbols combine with each other
according to the same laws as symbols of quantity, we can first expand a
given function with reference to any particular symbol which it contains,
and then expand the result with reference to any other symbol, and so on
in succession, the order of the expansions being quite indifferent.
Thus the given function being (xy) we have
(xy) = (x0) + (x1) (x0) y;
properties of elective functions. 65
and expanding the coefficients with reference to x, and reducing
(xy) = (00) + (10) (00) x + (01) (00) y
+ (11) (10) (01) + (00) xy; (50)
to which we may give the elegant symmetrical form
(xy) = (00)(1 x)(1 y) + (01)y(1 x)
+ (10)x(1 y) + (11)xy; (51)
wherein we shall, in accordance with the language already employed, des-
ignate (00), (01), (10), (11), as the moduli of the function (xy).
By inspection of the above general form, it will appear that any func-
tions of two variables are equivalent, whose corresponding moduli are all
equal.
Thus the conditions upon which depends the satisfaction of the equa-
tion, (xy) n
= (xy)
are seen to be
(00) n
= (00); (01) n
= (01);
(10) n
= (10); (11) n
= (11):
(52)
And the conditions upon which depends the satisfaction of the equation
(xy) (xy) = (xy);
are
(00) (00) = (00); (01) (01) = (01);
(10) (10) = (10); (11) (11) = (11):
(53)
It is very easy to assign by induction from (47) and (51), the general
form of an expanded elective function. It is evident that if the number
of elective symbols is m, the number of the moduli will be 2m, and that
properties of elective functions. 66
their separate values will be obtained by interchanging in every possible
way the values 1 and 0 in the places of the elective symbols of the given
function. The several terms of the expansion of which the moduli serve as
coefficients, will then be formed by writing for each 1 that recurs under
the functional sign, the elective symbol x, &c., which it represents, and for
each 0 the corresponding 1 x, &c., and regarding these as factors, the
product of which, multiplied by the modulus from which they are obtained,
constitutes a term of the expansion.
Thus, if we represent the moduli of any elective function (xy : : : ) by
a1, a2, : : : ; ar, the function itself, when expanded and arranged with ref-
erence to the moduli, will assume the form
(xy) = a1t1 + a2t2 + artr; (54)
in which t1t2 : : : tr are functions of x, y, : : : , resolved into factors of the
forms x, y, : : : 1 x, 1 y, : : : &c. These functions satisfy individually
the index relations
tn
1 = t1; tn
2 = t2; &c:; (55)
and the further relations,
t1t2 = 0 : : : t1t2 = 0; &c:; (56)
the product of any two of them vanishing. This will at once be inferred
from inspection of the particular forms (47) and (51). Thus in the latter
we have for the values of t1, t2, &c., the forms
xy; x(1 y); (1 x)y; (1 x)(1 y);
and it is evident that these satisfy the index relation, and that their prod-
ucts all vanish. We shall designate t1t2 : : : as the constituent functions
of (xy), and we shall define the peculiarity of the vanishing of the binary
products, by saying that those functions are exclusive. And indeed the
classes which they represent are mutually exclusive.
properties of elective functions. 67
The sum of all the constituents of an expanded function is unity. An
elegant proof of this Proposition will be obtained by expanding 1 as a
function of any proposed elective symbols. Thus if in (51) we assume
(xy) = 1, we have (11) = 1, (10) = 1, (01) = 1, (00) = 1, and
(51) gives
1 = xy + x(1 y) + (1 x)y + (1 x)(1 y): (57)
It is obvious indeed, that however numerous the symbols involved, all
the moduli of unity are unity, whence the sum of the constituents is unity.
We are now prepared to enter upon the question of the general inter-
pretation of elective equations. For this purpose we shall find the following
Propositions of the greatest service.
Prop. 2. If the first member of the general equation (xy : : : ) = 0, be
expanded in a series of terms, each of which is of the form at, a being a
modulus of the given function, then for every numerical modulus a which
does not vanish, we shall have the equation
at = 0;
and the combined interpretations of these several equations will express
the full significance of the original equation.
For, representing the equation under the form
a1t1 + a2t2 + artr = 0: (58)
Multiplying by t1 we have, by (56),
a1t1 = 0; (59)
whence if a1 is a numerical constant which does not vanish,
t1 = 0;
and similarly for all the moduli which do not vanish. And inasmuch as
from these constituent equations we can form the given equation, their
interpretations will together express its entire significance.
properties of elective functions. 68
Thus if the given equation were
x y = 0; Xs and Ys are identical, (60)
we should have (11) = 0, (10) = 1, (01) = 1, (00) = 0, so that the
expansion (51) would assume the form
x(1 y) y(1 x) = 0;
whence, by the above theorem,
x(1 y) = 0; All Xs are Ys,
y(1 x) = 0; All Ys are Xs,
results which are together equivalent to (60).
It may happen that the simultaneous satisfaction of equations thus
deduced, may require that one or more of the elective symbols should
vanish. This would only imply the nonexistence of a class: it may even
happen that it may lead to a final result of the form
1 = 0;
which would indicate the nonexistence of the logical Universe. Such cases
will only arise when we attempt to unite contradictory Propositions in a
single equation. The manner in which the difficulty seems to be evaded in
the result is characteristic.
It appears from this Proposition, that the differences in the interpreta-
tion of elective functions depend solely upon the number and position of
the vanishing moduli. No change in the value of a modulus, but one which
causes it to vanish, produces any change in the interpretation of the equa-
tion in which it is found. If among the infinite number of different values
which we are thus permitted to give to the moduli which do not vanish in a
proposed equation, any one value should be preferred, it is unity, for when
the moduli of a function are all either 0 or 1, the function itself satisfies
the condition (xy : : : ) n
= (xy : : : );
properties of elective functions. 69
and this at once introduces symmetry into our Calculus, and provides us
with fixed standards for reference.
Prop. 3. If w = (xy : : : ), w, x, y, : : : being elective symbols, and
if the second member be completely expanded and arranged in a series of
terms of the form at, we shall be permitted to equate separately to 0 every
term in which the modulus a does not satisfy the condition
an = a;
and to leave for the value of w the sum of the remaining terms.
As the nature of the demonstration of this Proposition is quite un-
affected by the number of the terms in the second member, we will for
simplicity confine ourselves to the supposition of there being four, and
suppose that the moduli of the two first only, satisfy the index law.
We have then
w = a1t1 + a2t2 + a3t3 + a4t4; (61)
with the relations
an
1 = a1; an
2 = a2;
in addition to the two sets of relations connecting t1, t2, t3, t4, in accordance
with (55) and (56).
Squaring (61), we have
w = a1t1 + a2t2 + a2
3 t3 + a2
4 t4;
and subtracting (61) from this,
(a2
3 a3)t3 + (a2
4 a4)t4 = 0;
and it being an hypothesis, that the coefficients of these terms do not
vanish, we have, by Prop. 2,
t3 = 0; t4 = 0; (62)
whence (61) becomes
w = a1t1 + a2t2:
properties of elective functions. 70
The utility of this Proposition will hereafter appear.
Prop. 4. The functions t1t2 : : : tr being mutually exclusive, we shall
always have
(a1t1 + a2t2 + artr) = (a1)t1 + (a2)t2 + (ar)tr; (63)
whatever may be the values of a1a2 : : : ar or the form of .
Let the function a1t1 +a2t2 +artr be represented by (xy : : : ), then
the moduli a1a2 : : : ar will be given by the expressions
(11 : : : ); (10 : : : ); (: : : ) (00 : : : ):
Also
(a1t1 + a2t2 + artr) = (xy : : : ) = (11 : : : ) xy + (10 : : : ) x(1 y) : : :
+ (00 : : : ) (1 x)(1 y) : : :
= (a1)xy + (a2)x(1 y) + (ar)(1 x)(1 y) : : :
= (a1)t1 + (a2)t2 + (ar)tr: (64)
It would not be difficult to extend the list of interesting properties,
of which the above are examples. But those which we have noticed are
sufficient for our present requirements. The following Proposition may
serve as an illustration of their utility.
Prop. 5. Whatever process of reasoning we apply to a single given
Proposition, the result will either be the same Proposition or a limitation
of it.
Let us represent the equation of the given Proposition under its most
general form,
a1t1 + a2t2 + artr = 0; (65)
resolvable into as many equations of the form t = 0 as there are moduli
which do not vanish.
properties of elective functions. 71
Now the most general transformation of this equation is
(a1t1 + a2t2 + artr) = (0); (66)
provided that we attribute to a perfectly arbitrary character, allowing it
even to involve new elective symbols, having any proposed relation to the
original ones.
The development of (66) gives, by the last Proposition,
(a1)t1 + (a2)t2 + (ar)tr = (0):
To reduce this to the general form of reference, it is only necessary to
observe that since
t1 + t2 + tr = 1;
we may write for (0),
(0)(t1 + t2 + tr);
whence, on substitution and transposition,
(a1) (0) t1 + (a2) (0) t2 + (ar) (0) tr = 0:
From which it appears, that if a be any modulus of the original equation,
the corresponding modulus of the transformed equation will be
(a) (0):
If a = 0, then (a) (0) = (0) (0) = 0, whence there are no
new terms in the transformed equation, and therefore there are no new
Propositions given by equating its constituent members to 0.
Again, since (a) (0) may vanish without a vanishing, terms may be
wanting in the transformed equation which existed in the primitive. Thus
some of the constituent truths of the original Proposition may entirely
disappear from the interpretation of the final result.
properties of elective functions. 72
Lastly, if (a) (0) do not vanish, it must either be a numerical
constant, or it must involve new elective symbols. In the former case, the
term in which it is found will give
t = 0;
which is one of the constituents of the original equation: in the latter case
we shall have (a) (0) t = 0;
in which t has a limiting factor. The interpretation of this equation, there-
fore, is a limitation of the interpretation of (65).
The purport of the last investigation will be more apparent to the math-
ematician than to the logician. As from any mathematical equation an
infinite number of others may be deduced, it seemed to be necessary to
shew that when the original equation expresses a logical Proposition, ev-
ery member of the derived series, even when obtained by expansion under
a functional sign, admits of exact and consistent interpretation.
OF THE SOLUTION OF ELECTIVE EQUATIONS.
In whatever way an elective symbol, considered as unknown, may be
involved in a proposed equation, it is possible to assign its complete value
in terms of the remaining elective symbols considered as known. It is
to be observed of such equations, that from the very nature of elective
symbols, they are necessarily linear, and that their solutions have a very
close analogy with those of linear differential equations, arbitrary elective
symbols in the one, occupying the place of arbitrary constants in the other.
The method of solution we shall in the first place illustrate by particular
examples, and, afterwards, apply to the investigation of general theorems.
Given (1 x)y = 0, (All Ys are Xs), to determine y in terms of x.
As y is a function of x, we may assume y = vx+v0(1x), (such being
the expression of an arbitrary function of x), the moduli v and v0 remaining
to be determined. We have then
(1 x)vx + v0(1 x) = 0;
or, on actual multiplication,
v0(1 x) = 0;
that this may be generally true, without imposing any restriction upon x,
we must assume v0 = 0, and there being no condition to limit v, we have
y = vx: (67)
This is the complete solution of the equation. The condition that y is
an elective symbol requires that v should be an elective symbol also (since
it must satisfy the index law), its interpretation in other respects being
arbitrary.
Similarly the solution of the equation, xy = 0, is
y = v(1 x): (68)
of the solution of elective equations. 74
Given (1 x)zy = 0, (All Ys which are Zs are Xs), to determine y.
As y is a function of x and z, we may assume
y = v(1 x)(1 z) + v0(1 x)z + v00x(1 z) + v000zx:
And substituting, we get
v0(1 x)z = 0;
whence v0 = 0. The complete solution is therefore
y = v(1 x)(1 z) + v00x(1 z) + v000xz; (69)
v0, v00, v000, being arbitrary elective symbols, and the rigorous interpretation
of this result is, that Every Y is either a not-X and not-Z, or an X and
not-Z, or an X and Z.
It is deserving of note that the above equation may, in consequence
of its linear form, be solved by adding the two particular solutions with
reference to x and z; and replacing the arbitrary constants which each
involves by an arbitrary function of the other symbol, the result is
y = x(z) + (1 z) (x): (70)
To shew that this solution is equivalent to the other, it is only necessary
to substitute for the arbitrary functions (z), (x), their equivalents
wz + w0(1 z) and w00x + w000(1 x);
we get
y = wxz + (w + w00)x(1 z) + w000(1 x)(1 z):
In consequence of the perfectly arbitrary character of w0 and w00, we
may replace their sum by a single symbol w, whence
y = wxz + w0x(1 z) + w000(1 x)(1 z);
which agrees with (69).
of the solution of elective equations. 75
The solution of the equation wx(1 y)z = 0, expressed by arbitrary
functions, is
z = (1 w)(xy) + (1 x) (wy) + y(wx): (71)
These instances may serve to shew the analogy which exists between
the solutions of elective equations and those of the corresponding order
of linear differential equations. Thus the expression of the integral of a
partial differential equation, either by arbitrary functions or by a series
with arbitrary coefficients, is in strict analogy with the case presented in
the two last examples. To pursue this comparison further would minister to
curiosity rather than to utility. We shall prefer to contemplate the problem
of the solution of elective equations under its most general aspect, which
is the object of the succeeding investigations.
To solve the general equation (xy) = 0, with reference to y.
If we expand the given equation with reference to x and y, we have
(00)(1x)(1y) + (01)(1x)y + (10)x(1y) + (11)xy = 0; (72)
the coefficients (00) &c. being numerical constants.
Now the general expression of y, as a function of x, is
y = vx + v0(1 x);
v and v0 being unknown symbols to be determined. Substituting this value
in (72), we obtain a result which may be written in the following form,
(10) + (11) (10) v*x + (00) + (00) (00) v0*(1 x) = 0;
and in order that this equation may be satisfied without any way restricting
the generality of x, we must have
(10) + (11) (10) v = 0;
(00) + (01) (00) v0 = 0;
of the solution of elective equations. 76
from which we deduce
v =
(10)
(10) (11)
; v0 =
(00)
(01) (00)
;
wherefore
y =
(10)
(10) (11)
x +
(00)
(00) (01)
(1 x): (73)
Had we expanded the original equation with respect to y only, we should
have had
(x0) + (x1) (x0) y = 0;
but it might have startled those who are unaccustomed to the processes of
Symbolical Algebra, had we from this equation deduced
y =
(x0)
(x0) (x1)
;
because of the apparently meaningless character of the second member.
Such a result would however have been perfectly lawful, and the expansion
of the second member would have given us the solution above obtained. I
shall in the following example employ this method, and shall only remark
that those to whom it may appear doubtful, may verify its conclusions by
the previous method.
To solve the general equation (xyz) = 0, or in other words to deter-
mine the value of z as a function of x and y.
Expanding the given equation with reference to z, we have
(xy0) + (xy1) (xy0) z = 0;
) z =
(xy0)
(xy0) (xy1)
; (74)
and expanding the second member as a function of x and y by aid of the
of the solution of elective equations. 77
general theorem, we have
z =
(110)
(110) (111)
xy +
(100)
(100) (101)
x(1 y)
+
(010)
(010) (011)
(1 x)y +
(000)
(000) (001)
(1 x)(1 y); (75)
and this is the complete solution required. By the same method we may
resolve an equation involving any proposed number of elective symbols.
In the interpretation of any general solution of this nature, the following
cases may present themselves.
The values of the moduli (00), (01), &c. being constant, one or more
of the coefficients of the solution may assume the form 0
0 or 1
0 . In the former
case, the indefinite symbol 0
0 must be replaced by an arbitrary elective
symbol v. In the latter case, the term, which is multiplied by a factor 1
0
(or by any numerical constant except 1), must be separately equated to 0,
and will indicate the existence of a subsidiary Proposition. This is evident
from (62).
Ex. Given x(1 y) = 0, All Xs are Ys, to determine y as a function
of x.
Let (xy) = x(1y), then (10) = 1, (11) = 0, (01) = 0, (00) = 0;
whence, by (73),
y =
1
1 0
x +
0
0 0
(1 x)
= x + 0
0(1 x)
= x + v(1 x); (76)
v being an arbitrary elective symbol. The interpretation of this result is
that the class Y consists of the entire class X with an indefinite remainder
of not-Xs. This remainder is indefinite in the highest sense, i. e. it may
vary from 0 up to the entire class of not-Xs.
Ex. Given x(1 z) + z = y, (the class Y consists of the entire class Z,
with such not-Zs as are Xs), to find Z.
of the solution of elective equations. 78
Here (xyz) = x(1 z) y + z, whence we have the following set of
values for the moduli,
(110) = 0; (111) = 0; (100) = 1; (101) = 1;
(010) = 1; (011) = 0; (000) = 0; (001) = 1;
and substituting these in the general formula (75), we have
z = 0
0xy + 1
0x(1 y) + (1 x)y; (77)
the infinite coefficient of the second term indicates the equation
x(1 y) = 0; All Xs are Ys;
and the indeterminate coefficient of the first term being replaced by v, an
arbitrary elective symbol, we have
z = (1 x)y + vxy;
the interpretation of which is, that the class Z consists of all the Ys which
are not Xs, and an indefinite remainder of Ys which are Xs. Of course this
indefinite remainder may vanish. The two results we have obtained are
logical inferences (not very obvious ones) from the original Propositions,
and they give us all the information which it contains respecting the class Z,
and its constituent elements.
Ex. Given x = y(1z)+z(1y). The class X consists of all Ys which
are not-Zs, and all Zs which are not-Ys: required the class Z.
We have
(xyz) = x y(1 z) z(1 y),
(110) = 0; (111) = 1; (100) = 1; (101) = 0;
(010) = 1; (011) = 0; (000) = 0; (001) = 1;
whence, by substituting in (75),
z = x(1 y) + y(1 x); (78)
of the solution of elective equations. 79
the interpretation of which is, the class Z consists of all Xs which are
not Ys, and of all Ys which are not Xs; an inference strictly logical.
Ex. Given y1 z(1 x) = 0, All Ys are Zs and not-Xs.
Proceeding as before to form the moduli, we have, on substitution in
the general formulae,
z = 1
0xy + 0
0x(1 y) + y(1 x) + 0
0(1 x)(1 y);
or
z = y(1 x) + vx(1 y) + v0(1 x)(1 y)
= y(1 x) + (1 y)(x); (79)
with the relation
xy = 0;
from these it appears that No Ys are Xs, and that the class Z consists of
all Ys which are not Xs, and of an indefinite remainder of not-Ys.
This method, in combination with Lagrange's method of indeterminate
multipliers, may be very elegantly applied to the treatment of simultaneous
equations. Our limits only permit us to offer a single example, but the
subject is well deserving of further investigation.
Given the equations x(1 z) = 0, z(1 y) = 0, All Xs are Zs, All Zs
are Ys, to determine the complete value of z with any subsidiary relations
connecting x and y.
Adding the second equation multiplied by an indeterminate constant ,
to the first, we have
x(1 z) + z(1 y) = 0;
whence determining the moduli, and substituting in (75),
z = xy +
1
1
x(1 y) + 0
0(1 x)y; (80)
from which we derive
z = xy + v(1 x)y;
of the solution of elective equations. 80
with the subsidiary relation
x(1 y) = 0;
the former of these expresses that the class Z consists of all Xs that are Ys,
with an indefinite remainder of not-Xs that are Ys; the latter, that All Xs
are Ys, being in fact the conclusion of the syllogism of which the two given
Propositions are the premises.
By assigning an appropriate meaning to our symbols, all the equations
we have discussed would admit of interpretation in hypothetical, but it
may suffice to have considered them as examples of categoricals.
That peculiarity of elective symbols, in virtue of which every elective
equation is reducible to a system of equations t1 = 0, t2 = 0, &c., so con-
stituted, that all the binary products t1t2, t1t3, &c., vanish, represents a
general doctrine in Logic with reference to the ultimate analysis of Propo-
sitions, of which it may be desirable to offer some illustration.
Any of these constituents t1, t2, &c. consists only of factors of the forms
x, y, : : : 1w, 1z, &c. In categoricals it therefore represents a compound
class, i. e. a class defined by the presence of certain qualities, and by the
absence of certain other qualities.
Each constituent equation t1 = 0, &c. expresses a denial of the existence
of some class so defined, and the different classes are mutually exclusive.
Thus all categorical Propositions are resolvable into a denial of the ex-
istence of certain compound classes, no member of one such class being a
member of another.
The Proposition, All Xs are Ys, expressed by the equation x(1y) = 0,
is resolved into a denial of the existence of a class whose members are Xs
and not-Ys.
The Proposition Some Xs are Ys, expressed by v = xy, is resolvable as
follows. On expansion,
v xy = vx(1 y) + vy(1 x) + v(1 x)(1 y) xy(1 v);
) vx(1 y) = 0; vy(1 x) = 0; v(1 x)(1 y) = 0; (1 v)xy = 0:
of the solution of elective equations. 81
The three first imply that there is no class whose members belong to a
certain unknown Some, and are 1st, Xs and not Ys; 2nd, Ys and not Xs;
3rd, not-Xs and not-Ys. The fourth implies that there is no class whose
members are Xs and Ys without belonging to this unknown Some.
From the same analysis it appears that all hypothetical Propositions
may be resolved into denials of the coexistence of the truth or falsity of
certain assertions.
Thus the Proposition, If X is true, Y is true, is resolvable by its equation
x(1y) = 0, into a denial that the truth of X and the falsity of Y coexist.
And the Proposition Either X is true, or Y is true, members exclusive,
is resolvable into a denial, first, that X and Y are both true; secondly, that
X and Y are both false.
But it may be asked, is not something more than a system of negations
necessary to the constitution of an affirmative Proposition? is not a posi-
tive element required? Undoubtedly there is need of one; and this positive
element is supplied in categoricals by the assumption (which may be re-
garded as a prerequisite of reasoning in such cases) that there is a Universe
of conceptions, and that each individual it contains either belongs to a pro-
posed class or does not belong to it; in hypotheticals, by the assumption
(equally prerequisite) that there is a Universe of conceivable cases, and
that any given Proposition is either true or false. Indeed the question of
the existence of conceptions (eÊ êsti) is preliminary to any statement of
their qualities or relations (tÐ êsti).|Aristotle, Anal. Post. lib. ii. cap. 2.
It would appear from the above, that Propositions may be regarded as
resting at once upon a positive and upon a negative foundation. Nor is such
a view either foreign to the spirit of Deductive Reasoning or inappropriate
to its Method; the latter ever proceeding by limitations, while the former
contemplates the particular as derived from the general.
of the solution of elective equations. 82
Demonstration of the Method of Indeterminate Multipliers, as applied to
Simultaneous Elective Equations.
To avoid needless complexity, it will be sufficient to consider the case of
three equations involving three elective symbols, those equations being the
most general of the kind. It will be seen that the case is marked by every
feature affecting the character of the demonstration, which would present
itself in the discussion of the more general problem in which the number
of equations and the number of variables are both unlimited.
Let the given equations be
(xyz) = 0; (xyz) = 0; (xyz) = 0: (1)
Multiplying the second and third of these by the arbitrary constants
h and k, and adding to the first, we have
(xyz) + h (xyz) + k(xyz) = 0; (2)
and we are to shew, that in solving this equation with reference to any
variable z by the general theorem (75), we shall obtain not only the general
value of z independent of h and k, but also any subsidiary relations which
may exist between x and y independently of z.
If we represent the general equation (2) under the form F(xyz) = 0, its
solution may by (75) be written in the form
z =
xy
1
F(111)
F(110)
+
x(1 y)
1
F(101)
F(100)
+
y(1 x)
1
F(011)
F(010)
+
(1 x)(1 y)
1
F(001)
F(000)
;
and we have seen, that any one of these four terms is to be equated to 0,
whose modulus, which we may represent by M, does not satisfy the con-
dition Mn = M, or, which is here the same thing, whose modulus has any
other value than 0 or 1.
of the solution of elective equations. 83
Consider the modulus (suppose M1) of the first term, viz.
1
1
F(111)
F(110)
,
and giving to the symbol F its full meaning, we have
M1 =
1
1
(111) + h (111) + k(111)
(110) + h (110) + k(110)
:
It is evident that the condition Mn
1 = M1 cannot be satisfied unless
the right-hand member be independent of h and k; and in order that this
may be the case, we must have the function
(111) + h (111) + k(111)
(110) + h (110) + k(110)
independent of h and k.
Assume then
(111) + h (111) + k(111)
(110) + h (110) + k(110)
= c;
c being independent of h and k; we have, on clearing of fractions and
equating coefficients,
(111) = c(110); (111) = c (110); (111) = c(110);
whence, eliminating c,
(111)
(110)
=
(111)
(110)
=
(111)
(110)
;
being equivalent to the triple system
(111) (110) (110) (111) = 0;
(111)(110) (110)(111) = 0;
(111)(110) (110)(111) = 0;
9>
=>
;
(3)
of the solution of elective equations. 84
and it appears that if any one of these equations is not satisfied, the mod-
ulus M1 will not satisfy the condition Mn
1 = M1, whence the first term of
the value of z must be equated to 0, and we shall have
xy = 0;
a relation between x and y independent of z.
Now if we expand in terms of z each pair of the primitive equations (1),
we shall have
(xy0) + (xy1) (xy0) z = 0;
(xy0) + (xy1) (xy0) z = 0;
(xy0) + (xy1) (xy0) z = 0;
and successively eliminating z between each pair of these equations, we
have
(xy1) (xy0) (xy0) (xy1) = 0;
(xy1)(xy0) (xy0)(xy1) = 0;
(xy1)(xy0) (xy0)(xy1) = 0;
which express all the relations between x and y that are formed by the
elimination of z. Expanding these, and writing in full the first term, we
have
(111) (110) (110) (111) xy + &c: = 0;
(111)(110) (110)(111) xy + &c: = 0;
(111)(110) (110)(111) xy + &c: = 0;
and it appears from Prop. 2. that if the coefficient of xy in any of these
equations does not vanish, we shall have the equation
xy = 0;
of the solution of elective equations. 85
but the coefficients in question are the same as the first members of the
system (3), and the two sets of conditions exactly agree. Thus, as respects
the first term of the expansion, the method of indeterminate coefficients
leads to the same result as ordinary elimination; and it is obvious that
from their similarity of form, the same reasoning will apply to all the other
terms.
Suppose, in the second place, that the conditions (3) are satisfied so
that M1 is independent of h and k. It will then indifferently assume the
equivalent forms
M1 =
1
1
(111)
(110)
=
1
1
(111)
(110)
=
1
1
(111)
(110)
:
These are the exact forms of the first modulus in the expanded values
of z, deduced from the solution of the three primitive equations singly. If
this common value of M1 is 1 or 0
0 = v, the term will be retained in z;
if any other constant value (except 0), we have a relation xy = 0, not
given by elimination, but deducible from the primitive equations singly,
and similarly for all the other terms. Thus in every case the expression
of the subsidiary relations is a necessary accompaniment of the process of
solution.
It is evident, upon consideration, that a similar proof will apply to the
discussion of a system indefinite as to the number both of its symbols and
of its equations.
POSTSCRIPT.
Some additional explanations and references which have occurred to
me during the printing of this work are subjoined.
The remarks on the connexion between Logic and Language, p. 4, are
scarcely sufficiently explicit. Both the one and the other I hold to depend
very materially upon our ability to form general notions by the faculty of
abstraction. Language is an instrument of Logic, but not an indispensable
instrument.
To the remarks on Cause, p. 11, I desire to add the following: Con-
sidering Cause as an invariable antecedent in Nature, (which is Brown's
view), whether associated or not with the idea of Power, as suggested by
Sir John Herschel, the knowledge of its existence is a knowledge which is
properly expressed by the word that (tä åtÈ), not by why (tä diåtÈ). It
is very remarkable that the two greatest authorities in Logic, modern and
ancient, agreeing in the latter interpretation, differ most widely in its ap-
plication to Mathematics. Sir W. Hamilton says that Mathematics exhibit
only the that (tä åtÈ): Aristotle says, The why belongs to mathematicians,
for they have the demonstrations of Causes. Anal. Post. lib. i., cap. xiv.
It must be added that Aristotle's view is consistent with the sense (albeit
an erroneous one) which in various parts of his writings he virtually assigns
to the word Cause, viz. an antecedent in Logic, a sense according to which
the premises might be said to be the cause of the conclusion. This view
appears to me to give even to his physical inquiries much of their peculiar
character.
Upon reconsideration, I think that the view on p. 42, as to the presence
or absence of a medium of comparison, would readily follow from Professor
De Morgan's doctrine, and I therefore relinquish all claim to a discovery.
The mode in which it appears in this treatise is, however, remarkable.
I have seen reason to change the opinion expressed in pp. 43, 46. The
system of equations there given for the expression of Propositions in Syllo-
postscript. 87
gism is always preferable to the one before employed|first, in generality|
secondly, in facility of interpretation.
In virtue of the principle, that a Proposition is either true or false, every
elective symbol employed in the expression of hypotheticals admits only of
the values 0 and 1, which are the only quantitative forms of an elective
symbol. It is in fact possible, setting out from the theory of Probabili-
ties (which is purely quantitative), to arrive at a system of methods and
processes for the treatment of hypotheticals exactly similar to those which
have been given. The two systems of elective symbols and of quantity os-
culate, if I may use the expression, in the points 0 and 1. It seems to me
to be implied by this, that unconditional truth (categoricals) and probable
truth meet together in the constitution of contingent truth (hypotheticals).
The general doctrine of elective symbols and all the more characteristic ap-
plications are quite independent of any quantitative origin.
THE END.
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