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By: Aristotle (384 BCE-322 BCE)

Book cover On the Parts of Animals

On the Parts of Animals by Aristotle . The first book asks whether animals were designed or came into existence by chance. The remaining three books focus on particular examples of various animals and the functions of their organs. The translator William Ogle, who was both a medical doctor and classicist, presented Charles Darwin with a copy of this translation.

By: Proclus (412-485)

Book cover Elements of Theology

The Elements of Theology was written by the Greek Neoplatonist philosopher Proclus and translated by Thomas Taylor who named his youngest son Thomas Proclus Taylor. This book consists of 211 propositions, each followed by a proof, beginning from the existence of the One and ending with the descent of individual souls into the material world. Saint Thomas Aquinas recognized that the Liber de Causis , which had been attributed to Aristotle, was actually a summary of the Elements of Theology, likely written by an Arabic interpreter. - Summary adapted from Wikipedia by Geoffrey Edwards

By: Theophrastus

Book cover Characters Of Theophrastus

Theophrastus was an ancient Greek philosopher, successor to Aristotle in the Peripatetic School. He wrote on many topics: biology, geology, physics, metaphysics, psychology, ethics, logic – and more. His book Characters… contains thirty brief, vigorous, and trenchant outlines of moral types, which form a most valuable picture of the life of his time, and in fact of human nature in general. They are the first recorded attempt at systematic character writing. “Apart from slight variations of local coloring and institutions, the descriptions of the old Greek philosopher might apply almost as well to the present inhabitants of London or Boston as to the Athenians of 300 B...

By: Proclus (412-485)

Book cover Six Books of Proclus, the Platonic Successor, on the Theology of Plato

The Six books of Proclus, the Platonic successor, on The Theology of Plato to which a Seventh book is added by the translator, Thomas Taylor, in order to supply the deficiency of another book on this subject, which was written by Proclus, but since lost. According to the 1995 Prometheus Trust edition Book 3 Chapter 1 of this translation contains Chapters 1-4 from the original Greek, Chapter 2 contains the Greek chapters 5-6 and Chapter 3 contains the Greek Chapters 7-8. Thereafter, the translated and Greek chapters match beginning at Chapter 9...

By: Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius

Book cover Consolation of Philosophy (Version 2)

The Consolation of Philosophy was written about 524 A.D. and has been called one of the most popular and influential books ever written. The book is presented as a dialogue between Boethius, the author, and Lady Philosophy, his tutor. Through her teaching, Boethius learns the true nature of fortune, misfortune, wealth, good, and evil.This dramatic reading is an attempt to present this wonderful work in an audio format while maintaining the dialogic structure of the work. Cast ListBoethius, the Narrator: Larry WilsonPhilosophy: Devorah AllenHeadings and Footnotes: KevinS

By: Marcus Minucius Felix

Book cover Octavius

This ancient Roman dialogue plays out as a religious debate between the Christian lawyer Octavius, and his close friend, a skeptical pagan named Caecilius. Caecilius is relatively agnostic, expressing skepticism towards both aspects of traditional Roman paganism, as well as towards his friend's newfangled Christian religion. Octavius attempts to give the reasons he has for his own beliefs and answer Caecilius' critiques. The author- Marcus Minucius Felix - plays the role of referee and observer. This is one of the earliest Latin texts to talk about Christianity, and describe how the new religion fit in the wider social context of the Roman world...

By: Epictetus

Book cover Enchiridion

The Enchiridion of Epictetus is a short collection of Stoic precepts compiled by Arrian, a student of Epictetus. Epictetus was a Greek philosopher and a champion of Stoicism, a philosophy dedicated to tranquility of the mind and soul via practical, actionable advice. Popular in the ancient and medieval world, it has even found favor in the contemporary military; fighter pilot James Stockdale attributed his survival of over seven years as a prisoner of war to the way of thinking contained in this short work.

By: Patanjali

Book cover Yoga Sutras of Patanjali (1917 edition)

The Yoga Sutras of Patanjali are in themselves exceedingly brief, less than ten pages of large type in the original. Yet they contain the essence of practical wisdom, set forth in admirable order and detail. The theme, if the present interpreter be right, is the great regeneration, the birth of the spiritual from the psychical man: the same theme which Paul so wisely and eloquently set forth in writing to his disciples in Corinth, the theme of all mystics in all lands.We think of ourselves as living a purely physical life, in these material bodies of ours...

By: Will Durant (1885-1981)

Book cover Story of Aristotle's Philosophy

This little Blue Book No. 39, by Will Durant, deals with Aristotle , a Macedonian pupil of Plato, who became the teacher of Prince Alexander. While his pupil went off to conquer the world, Aristotle returned to Athens and founded his school, the Lyceum. There he amassed the first great collection of plants and animals and laid the foundations of biology, logic, literary theory, ethics, and political science. Departing from abstract Platonic universals, Aristotle described such natural processes as the developing embryo of the chick...

By: Aristotle (384 BCE-322 BCE)

Book cover History of Animals

Book I Grouping of animals and the parts of the human body. Book II Different parts of red-blooded animals. Book III Internal organs. Book IV Animals without blood . Books V & VI Animal reproduction. Book VII Human reproduction. Book VIII Habits . Book IX Social behavior. Book X Dealing with barrenness in women was excluded from the translation of D'Arcy Thompson for being spurious so the translation of the Clergyman Richard Cresswell is used instead. Sir D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson was a biologist, mathematician and classicist who also wrote On Growth and Form which discusses the mathematical patterns and structures formed in plants and animals.

By: Epictetus

Book cover Discourses of Epictetus

Philosophical discourses of Epictetus as recorded by his affectionate student, Arrian. One main precept expounded is that we do not fear events but rather our thoughts about those events.

By: Titus Lucretius Carus

Book cover On the Nature of Things (Munro translation)

Titus Lucretius Carus , the author of "De Rerum Natura" or "On the Nature of Things," was a Roman poet and philosopher. The work, a didactic poem expounding the teachings of Epicurus, often rises to sublime and lyrical heights. Lucretius enjoins us to shun superstitious fears and religious rituals. The universe is governed by the laws of matter and energy. The world, like ourselves, is mortal. But the philosophic materialism of Lucretius does not impair his awestruck delight in the spectacle of the heavens, in the play of dust motes in a beam of light, in the sight of molten metals, or of the fierce breed of lions, or of horses surging from a starting gate...

By: Aristotle (384 BCE-322 BCE)

Book cover Movement & Progression of Animals

Movement of Animals begins with a discussion of the physics of motion and asks whether God, the Unmoved Mover, exists outside of our Universe. Progression of Animals asks why animals have the parts they do and to what end these parts are possessed. - Summary by Geoffrey Edwards

Book cover Generation of Animals

Generation of Animals ; Latin: De Generatione Animalium) Book 1: Sexual Parts, Semen & Sexual Generation Book 2: Sexes, Embryo Development & Sterility Book 3: Birds, Fish, Cephalopods, Insects, Bees & Testacea Book 4: Causes of Sex, Heredity & Teratology Book 5: Distinction between Necessity and the Final Cause Charles Darwin wrote: "Linnaeus and Cuvier have been my two gods, though in very different ways, but they were mere schoolboys to old Aristotle." - Summary by Geoffrey Edwards

By: Annie Besant (1847-1933)

Book cover Ancient Ideals in Modern Life: Four Lectures

Four lectures about East Indian spirituality delivered at the twenty-fifth anniversary meeting of the Theosophical Society at Benares, 1900. - Summary by Czandra

By: James Frazer (1854-1941)

Book cover Golden Bough. A Study in Magic and Religion. Part 4. Adonis Attis Osiris. Volume 2

The sixth volume in the Golden Bough. Frazer continues into the second part of the compilation of analogies dealing with the recurring theme of the dying god. the worship of the dead, and dead kings. Extensive evidence is presented from the history of Egypt and what had been learned from archaeology in North Africa and the Mediterranean. The Egyptian calendar and festivals, the identify and personality of Osiris, and the relationship of the mother goddess, are discussed in length. - Summary by Leon Harvey

By: Aristotle (384 BCE-322 BCE)

Book cover Meteorology, On the Universe & On Breath

Meteorology by Aristotle Translated by Erwin Wentworth Webster before he fell in action in 1917. Book I: The Celestial Sphere, Stars & Precipitation Book II: Seas, Winds & Earthquakes Book III: Halos, Rainbows & Mock Suns Book IV: The Elements & Secondary Qualities On the Universe is attributed to Aristotle but may have been written by Posidonius the Stoic or someone well acquainted with his work. Two candidates for the Alexander addressed in the text are Alexander the Great and Tiberius Claudius Alexander, nephew of Philo Judaeus and Procurator of Judaea, and in A...


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