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Babylonian and Assyrian Laws, Contracts and Letters   By: (1857-1920)

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Library of Ancient Inscriptions

Babylonian And Assyrian

Laws, Contracts and Letters


C. H. W. Johns, M.A.

Lecturer in Queens' College, Cambridge, and

King's College, London

New York

Charles Scribner's Sons



Dedication Preface List Of Abbreviations Sources And Bibliography Laws And Contracts I. The Earliest Babylonian Laws II. The Code Of Hammurabi III. Later Babylonian Law IV. The Social Organization Of The Ancient Babylonian State V. Judges, Law Courts, And Legal Processes VI. Legal Decisions VII. Public Rights VIII. Criminal Law IX. The Family Organization X. Courtship And Marriage XI. Divorce And Desertion XII. Rights Of Widows XIII. Obligations And Rights Of Children XIV. The Education And Early Life Of Children XV. Adoption XVI. Rights Of Inheritance XVII. Slavery XVIII. Land Tenure In Babylonia XIX. The Army, Corvée , And Other Claims For Personal Service XX. The Functions And Organization Of The Temple XXI. Donations And Bequests XXII. Sales XXIII. Loans And Deposits XXIV. Pledges And Guarantees XXV. Wages Of Hired Laborers XXVI. Lease Of Property XXVII. The Laws Of Trade XXVIII. Partnership And Power Of Attorney XXIX. Accounts And Business Documents Babylonian And Assyrian Letters I. Letters And Letter Writing Among The Babylonians And Assyrians II. The Letters Of Hammurabi III. The Letters Of Samsu Iluna And His Immediate Successors IV. Private Letters Of The First Dynasty Of Babylon V. Sennacherib's Letters To His Father, Sargon VI. Letters From The Last Year Of Shamash Shum Ukîn VII. Letters Regarding Affairs In Southern Babylonia Letters About Elam And Southern Babylonia IX. Miscellaneous Assyrian Letters X. Letters Of The Second Babylonian Empire Appendix I. The Prologue And Epilogue To The Code Of Hammurabi II. Chronology III. Weights And Measures IV. Bibliography Of The Later Periods Index Footnotes


To My Mother In Memory Of Loving Help


The social institutions, manners, and customs of an ancient people must always be of deep interest for all those to whom nothing is indifferent that is human. But even for modern thinkers, engrossed in the practical problems of our advanced civilization, the records of antiquity have a direct value. We are better able to deal with the complicated questions of the day if we are acquainted with the simpler issues of the past. We may not set them aside as too remote to have any influence upon us. Not long ago men looked to Greece and Rome for political models. We can hardly estimate the influence which that following of antiquity has had upon our own social life.

But there is a deeper influence even than Greek politics and Roman law, still powerfully at work among us, which we owe to a more remote past. We should probably resent the idea that we were not dominated by Christian principles. So far as they are distinct from Greek and Roman ideals, most of them have their roots in Jewish thought. When a careful investigation is made, it will probably be found that the most distinctive Christian principles in our times are those which were taken over from Jewish life, since the Old Testament still more widely appeals to us than the New. But those Jewish ideas regarding society have been inherited in turn from the far more ancient Babylonian civilization. It is startling to find how much that we have thought distinctively our own has really come down to us from that great people who ruled the land of the two streams... Continue reading book >>

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