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A History of Science, Volume 5   By: (1863-1943)

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A HISTORY OF SCIENCE

By Henry Smith Williams

Assisted By Edward H. Williams

In Five Volumes

VOLUME V.

Aspects Of Recent Science

New York And London

Harper And Brothers

Copyright, 1904, by Harper & Brothers.

Published November, 1904.

CONTENTS

BOOK V

CHAPTER I THE BRITISH MUSEUM

The founding of the British Museum, p. 4 Purchase of Sir Hans Sloane's collection of curios by the English government, p. 4 Collection of curios and library located in Montague Mansion, p. 5 Acquisition of the collection of Sir William Hamilton, p. 5 Capture of Egyptian antiquities by the English, p. 5 Construction of the present museum building, p. 6 The Mesopotamian department, p. 8 The Museum of Natural History in South Kensington, p. 8 Novel features in the structure of the building, p. 9 Arrangement of specimens to illustrate evolution, protective coloring, etc., p. Exhibits of stuffed specimens amid their natural surroundings, p. 10 Interest taken by visitors in the institution, p. 12.

CHAPTER II THE ROYAL SOCIETY OP LONDON FOR IMPROVING NATURAL KNOWLEDGE

The Royal Society, p. 14 Weekly meetings of the society, p. 15 The tea before the opening of the lecture, p. 15 Announcement of the beginning of the lecture by bringing in the great mace, p. 16 The lecture room itself, p. 17 Comparison of the Royal Society and the Royal Academy of Sciences at Berlin, p. 18 The library and reading room, p. 19 The busts of distinguished members, p. 20 Newton's telescope and Boyle's air pump, p. 21.

CHAPTER III THE ROYAL INSTITUTION AND LOW TEMPERATURE RESEARCHES

The founding of the Royal Institution, p. 29 Count Rumford, p. 30 His plans for founding the Royal Institution, p. 32 Change in the spirit of the enterprise after Rumford's death, p. 33 Attitude of the earlier workers towards the question of heat as a form of motion, p. 34 Experiments upon gases by Davy and Faraday, p. 35 Faraday's experiments with low temperatures, p. 39 Other experiments to produce lower temperature, p. 39 Professor De war begins low temperature research, p. 39 His liquefaction of hydrogen, p. 43 Hampson's method of producing low temperatures, p. 44 Dewar's invention of the vacuum vessel, p. 53 Its use in retaining liquefied gases, p. 54 Changes in physical properties of substances at excessively low temperatures, p. 56 Magnetic phenomena at low temperatures, p. 56 Changes in the color of substances at low temperatures, p. 57 Substances made luminous by low temperatures, p. 58 Effect of low temperatures upon the strength of materials, p. 59 Decrease of chemical activity at low temperatures, p. 60 Olzewski's experiments with burning substances in liquid oxygen, p. 61 Approach to the absolute zero made by liquefying hydrogen, p. 69 Probable form of all matter at the absolute zero, p. 70 Uncertain factors that enter into this determination, p. 71.

CHAPTER IV SOME PHYSICAL LABORATORIES AND PHYSICAL PROBLEMS

Sir Norman Lockyer and Spectroscopic Studies of the Sun and Stars, p. 73 Observations made at South Kensington by Sir Norman and his staff, p. 74 His theories as to the influence of sun spots and terrestrial weather, p. 75 Spectroscopic studies of sun spots, p. 76 Studies of the so called reverse lines of the spectrum, p. 78 Discovery of the new star in the constellation of Perseus, p. 80 Spectroscopic studies of the new star, p. 81 Professor Ramsay and the new gases, p. 82 University College in London, p. 83 Professor Ramsay's laboratory and its equipment, p. 84 The discovery of argon, p. 86 Professor Ramsay's work on krypton, neon, and zenon, p. 87 Discoveries of new constituents of the atmosphere, p. 88 Interesting questions raised by these discoveries, p. 89 Professor J. J. Thomson and the nature of electricity, p. 92 Study of gases in relation to the conduction of electricity, p. 93 Electricity regarded as a form of matter, p... Continue reading book >>


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