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Natural History of the Bell Vireo, Vireo bellii Audubon   By:

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UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Volume 12, No. 5, pp. 241 296, 6 figs. March 7, 1962

Natural History of the Bell Vireo, Vireo bellii Audubon

BY JON C. BARLOW

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS LAWRENCE 1962

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS PUBLICATIONS, MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY

Editors: E. Raymond Hall, Chairman, Theodore H. Eaton, Jr., Henry S. Fitch

Volume 12, No. 5, pp. 241 296, 6 figs. Published March 7, 1962

UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS Lawrence, Kansas

PRINTED BY JEAN M. NEIBARGER, STATE PRINTER TOPEKA, KANSAS 1962

29 1506

Natural History of the Bell Vireo, Vireo bellii Audubon

BY

JON C. BARLOW

CONTENTS

PAGE CONTENTS 243 INTRODUCTION 245 ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 245 METHODS OF STUDY 246 STUDY AREA 247 Considerations of Habitat 248 SEASONAL MOVEMENT 250 Arrival in Spring 250 Fall Departure 251 GENERAL BEHAVIOR 252 Flight 252 Foraging and Food Habits 252 Bathing 253 VOCALIZATIONS 254 Singing Postures 255 Flight Song 255 Daily Frequency of Song 255 Types of Vocalizations 255 TERRITORIALITY 258 Establishment of Territory 259 Size of Territories 259 Permanence of Territories 260 Maintenance of Territory 260 Aggressive Behavior of the Female 264 Interspecific Relationships 264 Discussion 265 COURTSHIP BEHAVIOR 267 Displays and Postures 268 Discussion 270 SELECTION OF NEST SITE AND NESTBUILDING 272 Building 274 Gathering of Nesting Materials 276 Length and Hours of Nestbuilding 277 Abortive Nestbuilding Efforts 277 Renesting 277 The Nest 277 EGGLAYING AND INCUBATION 278 Egglaying 278 Clutch size 279 Incubation 280 The Roles of the Sexes in Incubation 280 Relief of Partners in Incubation 283 NESTLING PERIOD 283 Hatching Sequence 283 Development of the Nestlings 284 Parental Behavior 285 Feeding of the Nestlings 286 Nest Sanitation 287 Fledging 287 Nest Parasites 287 FLEDGLING LIFE 288 Second Broods 288 REPRODUCTIVE SUCCESS 289 Behavior 290 Predation 291 Cowbird Parasitism 291 SUMMARY 292 LITERATURE CITED 294

INTRODUCTION

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