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Scientific American Supplement, No. 392, July 7, 1883   By:

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NEW YORK, JULY 7, 1883

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XVI, No. 392.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.


I. ELECTRICITY AND MAGNETISM. Improved Dynamo Machine. Eight figures.

An Improved Manganese Battery. By GEO. LEUCHS.

The Cause of Evident Magnetism in Iron, Steel, and other Magnetic Metals. By Prof. D. E. HUGHES. Neutrality. Superposed Magnetism. Elastic Nature of the Ether Surrounding the Magnetic Molecules. 3 figures.

II. ENGINEERING. The Westinghouse Brake. 2 figures.

Hydraulic Elevators and Motors. By B. F. JONES. Bearing upon the Water Supply of Cities. Cost of Water used. Objectionable effects on Water Works. Best method of arranging water supply. Cause of Accidents. Advantages of Water Motors over Steam Engines. Rates for Water Motors.

Water Supply of Small Towns. Process of Softening Hard Water. Six figures.

Improved Water Meter. Several figures.

III. TECHNOLOGY. Washing Machine for Wool. 1 figure.

Increasing the Illuminating Power of Gases, etc. By V. POPP. 3 figures.

Preventing Iron from Rusting.

An Elastic Mass for Confectioners' Use.


Photographic Action Studied Spectroscopically.

Salt and Lime.

Renewing Paint without Burning.

A Green or Golden Color for all Kinds of Brass. By E. PULCHER.


The Preservation of Meat by Carbonic Acid.

On the Adulteration of Soap. By Dr. H. BRACKEBUSCH.

IV. CHEMISTRY. Testing Olive Oil. By Dr. O. BACH.

On the Theory of the Formation of Compound Ethers.

The Alizarine Industry.

Reduction of Oxidized Iron by Carbonic Oxide.

V. MEDICINE AND HYGIENE. Bovine and Human Milk; the Difference in its Action and Composition. By C. HUSSON.

Cereal Foods in their Relation to Health and Disease. By F. R. CAMPBELL.

Moist Air in Living Rooms.

The Developmental Significance of the Human Physiognomy. By E. D. COPE. Numerous illustrations.

VI. NATURAL HISTORY. The Diamond Fields of South Africa.

Sponges at the Bahamas.

Testing Fish Ova for Impregnation.

VII. MISCELLANEOUS. The Production of Fire. 4 figures.

St. Blaise. The winner of the Derby. 1 illustration.


The continuous current and the alternating current generators invented by Dr. J. Hopkinson and Dr. Alexander Muirhead are peculiarly interesting as being probably the first in which the bobbins of the armature were wound with copper ribbon and arranged on a disk armature much in the same way as was afterward done by Sir William Thomson and by Mr. Ferranti. In the Muirhead Hopkinson machine the armature coils are attached to a soft iron ring, whereas in the Ferranti the iron core is dispensed with, and a gain of lightness in the armature or rotating part effected; this advantage is of considerable importance, though Messrs. Hopkinson and Muirhead can of course reduce the weight of this iron core to insignificant proportions.


The general form of this generator is clearly shown by the side and end elevation.

The armature is made by taking a pulley and encircling it with a rim of sheet iron bands, each insulated from the other by asbestos paper. On one or both sides of the rim thus formed, radial slots are cut to admit radial coils of insulated copper wire or ribbon, so that they lie in planes parallel to the plane of the pulley. In the continuous current machine coils are placed on both sides of the iron rim and arranged alternately, that on the one side always covering the gap between two on the other side... Continue reading book >>

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