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The Struggle between President Johnson and Congress over Reconstruction   By:

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I

THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN PRESIDENT JOHNSON AND CONGRESS OVER RECONSTRUCTION

STUDIES IN HISTORY, ECONOMICS AND PUBLIC LAW

EDITED BY THE FACULTY OF POLITICAL SCIENCE OF COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY IN THE CITY OF NEW YORK.

Volume VIII] [Number 1

THE STRUGGLE BETWEEN PRESIDENT JOHNSON AND CONGRESS OVER RECONSTRUCTION

BY CHARLES ERNEST CHADSEY, Ph.D.

NEW YORK 1896

CONTENTS

PAGE

CHAPTER I. THEORIES PRIOR TO THE CLOSE OF THE WAR.

1. The Problem 7

2. Common Belief at Opening of Hostilities: The Crittenden Resolution 8

3. The Democratic Theory 10

4. Lincoln: The Development of his Theory 14

5. The Congressional Policy 18

CHAPTER II. JOHNSON'S THEORY: THE EXPERIMENT AND ITS RESULTS.

1. Conditions at Accession of Johnson 28

2. Lincoln vs. Johnson 28

3. Johnson's views before Accession 29

4. Speeches in the Spring after his Accession 30

5. Secret of his Attitude 32

6. Development of his Theory 34

7. Attitude towards Enfranchisement of the Negro 41

8. Legislative Action in the South 42

9. The Defense of the South 46

10. Effect of the Attitude of the South upon the North 47

CHAPTER III. ATTITUDE OF CONGRESS TOWARDS THE EXPERIMENT: DEVELOPMENT OF THE CONGRESSIONAL THEORY.

1. Attitude of Parties towards the Administration at Beginning of the Session 49

2. Opening Scenes in Congress 50

3. The Annual Message: Debate on Reconstruction 55

4. The Freedmen's Bureau 59

5. Johnson's Indiscreet Speeches in February, 1866 65

6. Civil Rights; Other Bills 68

7. Report of Committee on Reconstruction 73

8. Authorized Measures of First Session 80

CHAPTER IV. THE CAMPAIGN OF 1866.

1. Crisis in the Cabinet 87

2. The New Orleans Riots 88

3. Administration Conventions 91

4. Anti Administration Conventions 98

5. The Fall Elections 103

6. Action on the XIV Amendment 104

CHAPTER V. THE CONGRESSIONAL THEORY FULLY DEVELOPED.

1. The Second Session Convenes; The Annual Message 107

2. First Reconstruction Bill 109

3. First Supplementary Bill 117

4. Second Supplementary Bill 122

5. State Conventions 124

6. Third Supplementary Bill 125

7. Ratification of Constitutions 125

8. Acts Re admitting States to Representation in Congress 125

CHAPTER VI. THE IMPEACHMENT OF THE PRESIDENT.

1. Why Congress Wished to Impeach 127

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