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THEORY OF SILK WEAVING
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THEORY OF SILK WEAVING
A Treatise on the Construction and Application of Weaves, and the
Decomposition and Calculation of Broad and Narrow, Plain, Novelty and
Jacquard Silk Fabrics
Containing 95 Plates
_By_ ARNOLD WOLFENSBERGER
Graduate of the Textile Institute of Zurich, Switzerland
* * * * *
Second Revised and Enlarged Edition
* * * * *
NEW YORK
_Issued by_ THE AMERICAN SILK JOURNAL
CLIFFORD & LAWTON
_Publishers_
_1921_
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* * * * *
COPYRIGHT. 1921. by CLIFFORD & LAWTON
_All rights reserved_
* * * * *
GROLIER CRAFT PRESS, Printers. 229 West Twenty-eighth Street, New York City
* * * * *
[Page 5]
PREFACE
The silk industry of America has of late years rapidly advanced to the
front rank among the great textile industries of the world. It may indeed
be proud of this position, to which that enterprising spirit and untiring
energy peculiar to our nation, combined with our great technical and
natural resources, has brought it.
That we are, on the other hand, not yet at the height of perfection we are
also compelled to acknowledge, but if we consider the short space of time
that the American industry has required for its development, as compared to
the decades, almost centuries, to which some of the great European silk
centers can look back, the fact is neither surprising nor discouraging.
While it must not be our aim to imitate or copy their ways, inasmuch as out
conditions and circumstances are quite different from theirs, we may still
profitably study their methods in order to overcome our deficiencies.
The greatest advantage which our competitors derive from such a long
existence consists in having at their disposal a force of skilful, trained
help. The manufacturers, appreciating the importance of this factor, make
great efforts and pecuniary sacrifices to elevate and maintain the high
standard of their industry.
For instance, they support textile schools and lecture courses, where young
men can acquire a thorough technical education and equip themselves for a
career of usefulness, thereby serving their own interests and at the same
time furthering those of their chosen profession.
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This beneficial influence cannot fail to exert itself from the standard of
the higher employer down to that of the weaver, who would naturally take
more pains and interest in his work than if he were a mere mechanical
appendage to his loom in order to keep it in motion.
Very little has been done in his country for technical education as far as
the silk industry is concerned, and it was on this special branch, that
prompted the author to offer in the present little work a treatise on the
theory of shaft weaving for broad silks and ribbons.
It is divided into three principal parts:
#1st. Drawing-in the warp in the harness.
2nd. The weaves and their application.
3rd. Decomposition or analysis of the cloth.#
To the foregoing there have been added in the revised and enlarged edition
several additional parts covering the following: JACQUARD WEAVES, BOX LOOM
WEAVES, including CREPES, and COST CALCULATIONS for plain and fancy weaves.
The subject while condensed, is made as clear and comprehensible as
possible, and to many desirous of increasing their knowledge in this
direction, this should prove a valuable help.
The author, through the medium of this work, hopes to win the approval and
encouragement of the manufacturers, and will feel amply repaid should his
efforts tend to develop a deeper interest in the "Queen of Textiles."
* * * * *
[Page 7]
THEORY OF SILK WEAVING
DRAWING-IN
With this term we designate the operation preceding the weaving, by which
all the warp-threads are drawn through the heddles of the harness.
The order in which this is done varies according to the weave and the
nature of the fabric to be produced; so we distinguish:
#Straight draws,
Skip draws,
Point draws,
Section draws.#
* * * * *
STRAIGHT DRAWS
[Illustration: Fig. 1]
* * * *
[Page 8]
[Illustration: Fig. 2]
These form the simplest and most common method of drawing-in. We begin with
the first heddle on the left side of the shaft _nearest to the warp-beam_,
then take the first heddle of second shaft and so on until all the shafts
the set contains are used in rotation. This completes one "draw," and this
operation is repeated until all the warp-threads are taken up.
The method of making the shaft nearest to the warp-beam the first, is
almost universal with the silk business and is technically called
_drawing-in from back to front_.
The opposite, or drawing in from _front to rear_, is used occasionally,
however, and in this case makes the first heddle on the left hand side of
the front shaft No. 1.
The making out of the _Drawing-in Draft_, which must indicate the
arrangement or the rotation in which the warp-threads are drawn in, can be
done in various ways, of which we will mention the two most popular
methods. The first is by using common designing paper, and indicating the
rotation by dots. The horizonal rows of squares represent the shafts, the
vertical rows the warp-threads. Fig. 1 shows four repeats of a straight
draw on six harness marked out according to this idea. A second method is
to use paper ruled horizontally, the lines representing the shafts; and to
draw vertical lines for the warp-threads. The latter are made to stop on
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the lines bearing the number of the shafts into which the respective
threads are to be drawn. Fig. 2 is such a draft, illustrating six repeats
of a draw on four harness from "Front to Rear."
* * * * *
SKIP DRAWS
[Illustration: Fig. 3]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 4]
The draws coming under this heading are used very extensively in silk
weaving, especially for fabrics requiring a heavy warp and a large number
of shafts. Enter first the odd and then the even shafts. An 8 harness draw
of this kind, of which three repeats are shown in Fig. 3, runs as follows:
1, 3, 5, 7, 2, 4, 6, 8.
Fig. 4 is a 12 harness draw of the same class.
* * * * *
POINT DRAWS
[Illustration: Fig. 5]
* * * *
[Page 10]
[Illustration: Fig. 6]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 7]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 8]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 9]
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Point draws are a combination of a regular straight draw from back to front
and one from front to back, the first and the last shafts only being used
once, while the rest receive two ends each in one repeat of the draw. Fig.
5 illustrates a regular point draw in 2 repeats on 10 shafts. It will be
seen that 14 ends make a repeat; in fact, the number of warp-threads
required for one draw will always be double the number of harness less 2,
hence a 12 harness regular point draw will require 22 warp-threads for a
repeat.
The drawing-in draft illustrated in Fig. 6 is a slight variation of the
regular point draw; it consists, as will be seen, of a draw from back to
front, and also a full one from front to back, there by causing a _double
point_.
Another change from the regular point draw is illustrated in Figs. 7 and 8;
this class may be called _Broken point draws_, because a new draw is begun
before the other one is complete. Fig. 9 also comes in this class and
represents a _zigzag draw_ on 10 harness.
The drawing-in drafts which we have described under the head of "Point
draws," are used mostly to obtain the various pointed and zigzag effects.
* * * * *
SECTION DRAWS
[Illustration: Fig. 10]
* * * *
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[Illustration: Fig. 11]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 12]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 13]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 14]
* * * *
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[Illustration: Fig. 15]
This division of drawing-in drafts is used extensively in silk
manufacturing; for instance, in all fabrics having a ground warp and a
binder warp, also in double-face goods, or where two different weaves are
combined in one effect.
One or more threads are drawn on the first section, then one or more on a
second and third, if the harness is divided in so many sets.
The following examples will illustrate the principle of these draws.
In Fig. 10, shafts 1, 2, 3, 4 from the first set, shafts 5 and 6 the
second, 8 threads are drawn straight on the first, then 2 on the second
section.
Fig. 11, first set shafts 1 to 6 inclusive, second set shafts 7 and 8.
Fig. 12 is drawn end and end on two sections having 8 shafts each.
Figs. 13, 14 and 15, while not strictly belonging to the class of section
draws, may, however, be considered under this heading. The idea is to draw
a certain number of ends in one part of the harness and another group in
another part, be it straight, point or skip, which will cause the effect on
the cloth to be accordingly transposed or broken up.
[Page 15]
* * * * *
THE WEAVES AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION
In any woven fabric we distinguish two systems of threads, the _Warp or
Chain_, running lengthways in the cloth, and the _Filling or Weft_,
crossing the former at right angles.
This crossing or interlacing consists of every individual warp-thread being
placed alternately under and over one or more threads of the filling
system. The arrangement of this interlacing is technically called the
_Weave_, and the variety in which the points of crossing can be distributed
is practically endless.
It is principally the weave that lends to a fabric its character,
influenced, of course, by the material used, the size and tension of the
threads and the combination of the colors.
The weaves are divided into three main classes: _the Foundation weaves_. In
the silk business they are known under the following names:
#The Taffeta Weave,
The Serge Weave,
The Satin Weave.#
In the foundation weaves each thread effects only one crossing in one
repeat of the weave, and the points of interlacing occur in a given
rotation. A repeat in the foundation weaves comprises the same number of
warp-threads as of _picks_ or filling threads, and if this number is 8, for
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instance, the weave is called an 8-shaft or an 8-harness weave. In marking
out a weave, the warp-threads are represented by vertical lines, the
filling by horizontal ones, or in each case by the space between these
lines. The places where a warp-thread lies over the filling are marked with
paint or simply with a cross. In a similar manner we mark out the _chain
draft_, which indicates the rotation in which the shafts are raised.
* * * * *
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THE TAFFETA WEAVE
[Illustration: Fig. 16]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 17]
[Page 18]
This is the simplest and oldest method of interlacing. The odd numbers of
warp-threads cross the even numbers after every pick; hence of two
warp-threads one will always go over the first pick and under the second,
and the other end under the first and over the second pick. Taffeta cloth,
therefore, has the same appearance on both sides, and in cotton and wool
weaving this weave is technically--and properly indeed--called the _Plain
Weave_. It has the smallest repeat, 2 warp-threads and 2 picks, and the
exchanging of warp and filling is the most frequent possible. The cloth
thus produced is firmer and stronger than that obtained with any other
weave.
Fig. 16 is a taffeta on 4 shafts straight draw, the draft executed in the
manner which we have already mentioned in explaining the drawing-in drafts.
Fig. 17 on common designing paper, illustrates a taffeta made on 8-harness,
skip draw.
Be it mentioned that the drawing-in draft and the chain draft will be added
throughout this work, the former over the weave to correspond with the
respective warp-threads, the latter to the right of the drawing-in draft.
* * * * *
[Page 19]
GROS DE TOURS WEAVES
[Illustration: Fig. 18]
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 19]
In this weave the working of the warp is the same as in taffeta, except
that instead of one pick, two or more are inserted in the same shed. It is
mostly used in selvedges, where it serves to give more firmness to the edge
of an otherwise loosely woven cloth, and prevents the weaving ahead of the
edge in a tight weave. Gros de Tours is sometimes used, especially when
cotton or wool filling is employed, with a view to lay two picks nicely
side by side, whereas a thread entered two ply with the taffeta weave will
always receive some twist, which may disturb the perfect evenness of the
fabric.
Fig. 18 is a Gros de Tours with two picks on four harness straight through.
Fig. 19 illustrates this weave with three picks drawn end and end on two
sections of four shafts each.
* * * * *
[Page 20]
SERGE or TWILL WEAVES
While the taffeta weave produces either an entirely smooth fabric, or one
with a distinct transverse rib as in gros-grain, the twill weave forms
diagonal lines on the cloth, running either from left to right or from
right to left.
To make a twill, not less than three ends and three picks are required, of
which each thread floats over two of the other system and interlaces with
the third. The rotation of the interlacing is always consecutive, that is
it moves with each succeeding pick one thread to the right (or to the left
if the lines are to run in that direction). If warp and filling have the
same texture, that is the same number of threads in a given space, the
twill lines will form an angle of 45°; if the warp stands closer than the
filling, the incline will be steeper, and in the opposite case the angle
will approach more the horizontal.
The weaves can be expressed in numbers, for instance: the 3-end twill warp
effect would be marked 2-1, which indicates that each warp-thread goes over
two and under one pick.
Twill weaves are called _evensided_ when the arrangement of "warp up" and
"filling up" are evenly balanced, and _unevensided_ if either warp or
filling predominate on the face of the fabric; the latter class is
therefore subdivided in _Warp effects_ and _Filling effects_.
In the following a number of serge weaves are illustrated, the French
designations being added in some cases, as they are still extensively used
in the trade.
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* * * * *
FILLING EFFECTS
_Satin de Lyon,_ 2-1.
On 6 harness straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 20]
* * * *
_Levantine,_ 3-1
On 8 shafts skip draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 21]
* * * *
[Page 22]
_Polonaise,_ 5-1
On 12 harness skip draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 22]
* * * *
_Serge grosse côte,_ 7-1
On 8 shafts straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 23]
* * * *
[Page 23]
_Serge remaine,_ 6-2
On 8 shafts skip draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 24]
* * * *
_Serge,_ 5-1, 1-1.
On 8 shafts skip draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 25]
* * * *
[Page 24]
_Serge,_ 4-2, 1-1, 1-1.
On 10 harness straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 26]
* * * *
_Serge,_ 7-1, 1-1, 1-1, 1-1, 1-1.
On 16 shafts skip draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 27]
* * * * *
[Page 25]
WARP EFFECTS
_Levantine,_ 3-1.
On 4 shafts straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 28]
* * * *
_Serge,_ 5-1, 1-1.
On 8 shafts skip draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 29]
* * * * *
[Page 26]
EVENSIDED TWILLS
_Surah,_ 2-2
On 4 shafts straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 30]
* * * *
_Croise,_ 3-3, 2-2, 1-1.
On 12 shafts straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 31]
* * * *
[Page 27]
_Serge,_ 7-7, 1-1, 1-1, 1-1
On 20 shafts skip draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 32]
* * * * *
POINTED TWILLS
in the direction of the filling and also of the warp.
[Illustration: Fig. 33]
On 4 shafts point draw, weave 3-1.
* * * *
[Page 28]
[Illustration: Fig. 34]
On 6 shafts point draw, drawn as follows:
Eighteen ends from back to front and 4 ends from front to rear, weave
5-1.
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 35]
On 8 shafts pointed draw, weave 5-1, 1-1.
* * * *
[Page 29]
[Illustration: Fig. 36]
On 10 shafts, with weave 3-3, drawn as follows:
7 threads from back to front.
3 " " front to rear.
6 " " back to front.
2 " " front to rear.
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 37]
On 6 shafts straight draw, pointed weave 5-1.
* * * *
[Page 30]
[Illustration: Fig. 38]
On 8 shafts straight through, pointed weave 5-1, 1-1.
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 39]
_Broken pointed twill_, on 8 harness.
* * * *
[Page 31]
[Illustration: Fig. 40]
On 6 shafts point draw, pointed weave 5-1.
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 41]
On 8 shafts point draw, pointed weave 5-1, 1-1.
* * * *
[Page 32]
[Illustration: Fig. 42]
_Fancy twill_, on 16 shafts straight draw.
* * * * *
SATIN WEAVES
The distinct diagonal lines which characterize the class of weaves
explained in the previous chapter are absent in the satin weaves; and while
the interlacing in the former is done in a strictly consecutive order, we
endeavor to scatter the points of stitching in the latter as much as
possible, in order to create an entirely smooth and brilliant surface on
[Page 33]
the cloth.
In all satins the number of ends in a repeat is the same in warp and
filling.
The lowest repeat of a regular satin comprises five threads of each system,
and the interlacing is done in the following order:
The 1st pick with the 1st warp-thread
" 2d " " 3d "
" 3d " " 5th "
" 4th " " 2d "
" 5th " " 4th "
Fig. 43 illustrates this weave. An examination of the rotation, as given
above, will show that every warp-thread intersects two picks apart from its
neighbor. The number "2" is in this case what is technically known as the
_counter_, that is the number which indicates the points of interlacing by
adding it to number 1 and continuing so until all the warp-threads are
taken up.
The following is the rule to find the counter for any regular satin:
Divide the number of harness into two parts, which must neither be equal
nor have a common divisor. Any of these two numbers can be used for
counting off, but usually the smaller one is taken. According to this rule
we obtain a regular satin
On 5 harness with counter 2
" 7 " " 2 or 3
" 8 " " 3
" 9 " " 2 or 4
" 10 " " 3
" 11 " " 2, 3, 4 or 5
" 12 " " 5
" 13 " " 2, 3, 4, 5 or 6
" 14 " " 3 or 5
" 15 " " 2, 4 or 7
" 16 " " 3, 5 or 7.
[Page 34]
The 4 harness broken twill, Fig. 53, is sometimes classed among the satins.
The 6 harness satin, Fig. 54, is irregular; as a counter cannot be derived
from number 6 by the given rule. The rotation generally used is 1, 3, 6, 4,
2, 5.
* * * * *
Regular Satins
_5 harness Satin, "Satin de Chine."_
Straight draw, counter 2.
[Illustration: Fig. 43]
* * * *
_7 harness Satin, "Satin Merveilleux."_
Skip draw, counter 2.
[Illustration: Fig. 44]
* * * *
[Page 35]
_7 harness satin_
Straight draw, counter 3.
[Illustration: Fig. 45]
* * * *
_8 harness satin "Duchese"_
Skip draw, counter 3.
[Illustration: Fig. 46]
* * * *
[Page 36]
_9 harness satin_
Straight draw, counter 4.
[Illustration: Fig. 47]
* * * *
_10 harness satin_
Straight draw, counter 3.
[Illustration: Fig. 48]
* * * *
[Page 37]
_11 harness satin_
Skip draw, counter 5.
[Illustration: Fig. 49]
* * * *
_12 harness satin_
Skip draw, counter 5.
[Illustration: Fig. 50]
* * * *
[Page 38]
_16 harness satin_
On 2 sections of 8 shafts each, drawn end and end, counter 7.
[Illustration: Fig. 51]
* * * *
[Page 39]
_8 harness satin, warp effect._
Straight draw, counter 3.
[Illustration: Fig. 52]
* * * * *
IRREGULAR SATINS
_Satin Turc._
On 4 shafts straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 53]
* * * *
[Page 40]
_Satin à la Reine_
On 6 shafts straight draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 54]
* * * *
[Page 41]
* * * * *
DERIVATIVE WEAVES
#1. From the Taffeta#
_Royale_ is a modification of the regular Gros de Tours, inasmuch as the
rib line, which in the latter runs straight across the cloth, is broken off
after a given number of warp-threads. These groups, which may comprise 8,
12 or more threads, will interlace each one pick higher than the preceding
one.
_Royale of 8 ends_
On 2 sections of 4 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 55]
* * * *
_Velours Ottoman or Faille française._
In order to obtain a broader rib than that of Gros de Tours, and at the
same time to lend firmness to the fabric, we add to the ground warp, which
forms the ribs, another or binder warp, which works continually taffeta,
[Page 42]
while the ground warp changes only every 3 or 4 picks for the rib.
_Faille française._
4 ends of ground on the first section of 8 shafts, skip draw.
1 " binder " second " 2 "
[Illustration: Fig. 56]
* * * *
_Velours Ottoman without a Binder-warp._
In this weave, of which Fig. 57 illustrates a specimen, comprising 8
warp-threads and 32 picks in a repeat, the rib contains 4 picks. Of the 8
warp-threads, 3 float over and 3 under the rib, while the 2 others bind
taffeta, which latter function is executed by 2 other threads in the next
rib.
[Page 43]
[Illustration: Fig. 57]
* * * * *
2. From the Twills
One variety is obtained by interlacing the warp-threads alternately one or
more picks behind, and then a number of picks ahead of their respective
neighbors; so the complete arrangement of the points of binding in a repeat
will generally form two parallel diagonal lines. This will cause the twill
lines to appear less pronounced than is the case in the regular twill, and
the character of the fabric approaches more that of the satin.
[Page 44]
[Illustration: Fig. 58]
_Satin Sergé._
On 8 shafts, straight draw.
* * * *
[Illustration: Fig. 59]
_Côte Satinée._
On 16 harness, skip draw.
* * * *
_Rhadzimir-Surah 2-2._ After a certain number of picks of the regular surah
all the warp-threads are crossed in two's thereby causing a sort of a rib
or cut line across the fabric.
[Page 45]
_Rhadzimir of 4 picks._
On 8 shafts, straight draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 60]
* * * *
_Rhadzimir of 6 picks._
On 8 shafts, straight draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 61]
* * * * *
[Page 46]
3. From the Satin Weave
_Satin Soleil_ shows a satin-like surface with a cross line appearance.
Fig. 62 illustrates it as made on 8 shafts, straight draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 62]
* * * *
_Satin Grec_ is a 12-harness satin, in which a taffeta point is added to
each place of interlacing, thus giving the cloth a much firmer hand. Fig.
63 represents this weave on 12 shafts, skip draw.
[Page 47]
[Illustration: Fig. 63]
* * * *
_Peau de Soie._ An 8-shaft satin with one point added on the right or left
to the original spots, giving the fabric a somewhat grainy appearence. Fig.
64 represents a peau de soie on 8 shafts, straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 64]
* * * *
[Page 48]
_Fleur de Soie._ The face is a satin de Lyon (2-1 twill), with a backing
interlaced on the 12-shaft satin principle, Fig. 65, on 12 shafts, skip
draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 65]
* * * * *
[Page 49]
CANNELE and REPP WEAVES
are in their construction related to the taffeta, and are used mostly in
the form of stripes as an additional ornament to a fabric. The threads
going into the composition of these effects exchange continually from
taffeta interlacing to floating over a certain number of threads, and must
be introduced either in warp or filling close enough to make the floats
cover up the taffeta work entirely, and thus enable the material used to
show up with the full brilliancy it possesses.
Cannele effects can be produced in two distinct ways. One is to let every
individual thread work alternately taffeta and float, while in the other
method one thread weaves always taffeta, and a second thread is used for
the cannele exclusively. These latter threads must come from a separate
warp, which is introduced to embellish the ground or taffeta part of the
fabric.
The floating threads can either stitch all on one pick and so form a
continuous cut line, or be divided in groups, of which one will bind in the
middle of the floats of the other group. The following designs show both
the face and backside of the respective weaves:
[Page 50]
_Alternating Cannele_ of 6 picks.
On 4 shafts, straight through.
[Illustration: Fig. 66]
* * * *
_Canelle_ (2 beams). Over 3 picks, interlacing on every fourth pick, drawn
end and end on 2 sections of 4 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 67]
* * * *
[Page 51]
_Cannele_ over 5 picks, binding on the sixth, but every second thread
advanced 3 picks (to the middle of the float of the first thread), drawn
end and end on 2 sections of 4 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 68]
* * * *
[Page 52]
_Cannele_ arranged in groups of 8 threads, floating over 6 picks and
binding on the seventh and eighth, drawn on 2 sections, with 4 shafts in
first and 2 in second section.
[Illustration: Fig. 69]
* * * *
_Repp_ on 8 shafts straight through. Rotation of filling. 1 pick taffeta, 1
pick float (rib).
[Illustration: Fig. 70]
* * * *
[Page 53]
_Repp_ of 8 threads, on 2 sections of 4 shafts each, 8 ends per section.
[Illustration: Fig. 71]
* * * *
_Repp_ of 5 threads, binding on the sixth; every second pick binds on the
middle of the first pick. On 6 harness straight draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 72]
* * * *
[Page 54]
_Repp_ in groups, floating over 6 ends and binding on the seventh and
eighth on 8 shafts straight draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 73]
* * * * *
[Page 55]
DOUBLE FACED FABRICS
In this class we find either two systems of warp or of filling so combined
that only one will be visible on either side. The color on one side is
generally different from the other, and so may the interlacing be of a
different nature on face and back. In the latter case great care must be
exercised not to allow the weave on one side to disturb the one on the
other, and as a rule the points of interlacing of the first warp or filling
system are placed as much as possible in the middle of the floats of the
second. This will prevent either color or weave to be seen on the opposite
side, as the floats of one side will naturally lay themselves over the
binders of the other. The number of ends in a repeat of the two weaves must
either be alike or one a multiple of the other.
Warp Effects
_Levantine_ on 8 shafts straight draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 74]
* * * *
[Page 56]
_Serge_ 6-2 on 2 sections of 8 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 75]
* * * *
8 _shaft satin_ on 2 sections of 8 harness each.
[Illustration: Fig. 76]
* * * *
[Page 57]
12 _shaft satin_ on 2 sections of 12 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 77]
* * * *
_Cannele_ of 8 picks on 2 sections of 4 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 78]
* * * * *
[Page 58]
FILLING EFFECTS
_Serge_ 5-1 on 6 harness straight draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 79]
* * * *
10 _harness satin_ on 10 shafts skip draw.
[Illustration: Fig. 80]
* * * *
[Page 59]
_Repp_ on 2 sections of 4 shafts each, 8 threads per section.
[Illustration: Fig. 81]
* * * *
[Page 60]
PEKINS
With this name we designate fabrics in which stripes of a different
interlacing run in the direction of the warp. In combining these weaves it
is advantageous to have them contrast distinctly, for instance, a short
weave such as taffeta or Gros de Tours, with a longer and looser one such
as satin, sergé or cannele, also changes from warp to filling effects. Care
must be taken to arrange the joining of the two weaves so that the last
thread of one weave will cross the first thread of the other. This will
prevent the threads from either stripe to slide over into the other, and so
make a clean cut line.
#Pekin.# A stripe of
2 dents of 8 ends each, 8 shaft Satin, on 8 shafts straight draw.
12 " 2 " Taffeta " 4 " " "
[Illustration: Fig. 82]
* * * *
[Page 61]
#Pekin#. A stripe of
12 ends Cannele of 6 picks on 1st section of 4 shafts.
12 " Repp " 6 threads on 2d and 3d section of 2 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 83]
* * * *
[Page 62]
#Pekin.# A stripe of
10 ends 5 leaf Satin on the 1st section of 5 shafts straight draw.
4 " Taffeta " 3d " 2 " " "
18 " Serge 3-1, 1-1 " 2d " 6 " " "
[Illustration: Fig. 84]
* * * * *
[Page 63]
BAYADÈRES
While pekins are formed by warp stripes, bayadère shows us stripes of
different weaves running in the direction of the filling. The rules given
in the previous chapter as to the joining of the weaves will also apply
here. The warp which was raised on the last pick of the weave must stay
down wherever possible on the first pick of the following weave. The number
of shafts employed must go up evenly in the repeat of each one of the
weaves that go into the make up of the bayadère.
#Bayadère#
A stripe of 24 picks Gros de Tours }
} on 8 shafts straight through.
" 8 " 8-shaft Satin, }
[Illustration: Fig. 85]
* * * *
[Page 64]
#Bayadère#
A stripe of 18 picks 6-shaft Satin }
" 6 " Serge 5-1, } on 6 shafts, straight draw.
" 4 " Taffeta, }
[Illustration: Fig. 86]
* * * * *
[Page 65]
CHECKS AND PLAIDS
If pekin and bayadère stripes are combined, we obtain checked fabrics, and
of these an endless variety and pleasing effects can be produced with the
aid of suitable color combinations.
#Check#
of 16 threads and 12 picks of the 4 end broken twill,
and 16 " " 12 " " Royale of 8 threads,
drawn on 4 sections of 4 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 87]
* * * *
[Page 66]
#Check#
of 20 threads and 16 picks of 8-shaft Satin,
" 20 " " 16 " " Taffeta,
4 " " Surah 3-1,
drawn on 2 sections of 8 shafts each.
[Illustration: Fig. 88]
* * * * *
[Page 67]
DECOMPOSITION
Under the name of _Disposition_ we comprise all those points and details
which we must ascertain before we can proceed with the construction of a
fabric. They are:
1. #The weave.#
2. #Length and width of the cloth.#
3. #The stock and the dyeing thereof.#
4. #Reed calculation# (number of dents and ends per inch and total number
of dents required).
5. #Drawing-in the warp in harness and reed.#
6. #Texture and arrangement of warp# (warping ticket)
7. #Arrangement of harness.#
8. #Reduction of filling.#
9. #Calculation of warp and filling.#
10. #Finishing.#
11. #Calculation of cost.#
[Page 68]
1. THE WEAVE
If a given sample is to be reproduced or imitated, it must be analyzed, and
the following hints will greatly facilitate this operation to the beginner.
Cut the sample straight on two sides, and draw out a number of warp and
filling threads until there is a small fringe of perhaps ¼ of an inch. This
will allow a thread to be raised a little for examination, without danger
of its falling out of the fabric. In most cases it is easier to dissect the
filling side, that is, the interlacing of each warp-thread in the threads
of the filling system. With the help of the microscope or counting glass we
can easily determine over and under how many picks that thread passes and
the points of interlacing are accordingly marked on designing paper. This
being done for at least the length of a repeat warpways, we take it out and
examine the following thread, and so on until the repeat filling-ways is
complete. It is advisable to ascertain how many picks ahead or back of the
first examined thread the next following one binds before taking the former
out.
A knowledge of the construction of weaves as explained in the foregoing
chapters will enable us to determine the weave of a simple pattern by
merely raising a warp-thread with a needle on any point of interlacing and
counting off how many picks apart from this place it makes an impression.
2. LENGTH AND WIDTH OF THE FABRIC
To the length and width which the finished product is to have, we must add
a certain allowance for shrinkage and _taking up_ of warp during weaving.
It may differ from one to ten per cent., according to the texture and weave
of the fabric, and can be ascertained with sufficient accuracy by
stretching out and measuring a thread of warp and filling and comparing
their length with the respective measurements of the sample to be
reproduced.
[Page 69]
3. THE STOCK AND ITS DYE
Under this heading we must give the particulars as to nature, _twist_,
_quality_ and _size_ of the silk, and the directions for the dyeing,
whether _bright_ or _souple_, and in what colors, also whether to be
weighted or not.
The size is generally ascertained (in practical work) by comparing it with
other silk of which the exact count is known. Another method is to count
the number of cocoon threads which a thread of the sample contains, adding
to that 1/3 or ¼, according to the quality of the silk; the result will be
the count in deniers. To obtain it in drams, divide the latter number by
17,3 as 1 dram is equal to 17,3 deniers.
Suppose we find 20 cocoon ends in a thread of silk: add 1/3, and we have
26-2/3 deniers, which, divided by 17,3 make 1,54 drams.
As silk is always more or less uneven, it is safer to count the cocoon
fibers of several threads and to take average thereof.
It requires the experience of years to judge with any degree of certainty
as to the origin and quality of silk, whether it be "classical," "extra,"
"sublime," etc.
There are machines wherewith to ascertain exactly the twist, that is, the
number of turns the silk has received in the throwing process.
In the dyeing we distinguish two great classes, of which the names
themselves give a good definition. "Bright" has a brilliant luster, while
"souple" has more of a dull, subdued appearance. To find out whether the
silk has been weighted in the dyeing process, we may compare it with other
silk of which the exact conditions are known, or we may burn a small
quantity of it. Unweighted silk does not burn readily and leaves a residue
of white ashes, while heavy weighted silk burns lively, leaving black,
charry ashes.
[Page 70]
4. REED CALCULATION
We count the number of repeats of the weave in a given space, generally ¼
or ½ inch, and multiply this with the number of threads one repeat
contains, which gives us the reduction of the warp.
Suppose we had a taffeta, which, as we know, has only 2 ends to a repeat,
and counted 30 interlacings per ¼ inch on one pick; we would have 60
threads per ¼ inch or 240 per one inch. In this case the reed may be 80 by
3 or 60 by 4.
Another instance: In an 8-shaft satin we count 10 warp-threads, which bind
on the same pick in ¼ inch; this, multiplied by 8, equals 80 ends per ¼, or
320 per one inch; the reed will be an 80 with 4 in a dent or a 64 by 5.
In short, the number of the reed is found by dividing the number of
warp-threads that are to go in one dent, in the number of ends per inch.
Sometimes, the reed marks are clearly visible in a sample by holding the
latter against the light. Silk fabrics move with very few exceptions within
the limits of 50 and 90 dents per inch.
To learn the full number of dents required for the width of the cloth,
simply multiply the dents per one inch with the width, adding a certain
allowance for shrinkage. The edges, of course, must also be taken in
consideration, and very often the dents that are taken up by the latter are
used to counter-balance that shrinkage.
5. DRAWING-IN THE WARP IN HARNESS AND REED
Here we must specify the number of dents that contain the same number of
ends, and whether the latter are single or double, also the number of
shafts and the method of drawing-in.
[Page 71]
6. WARPING TICKET
To make out the warping ticket, we need to ascertain the total number of
ends, whether leased single or double, and the arrangement of the colors.
7. HARNESS ARRANGEMENT
This is governed by the number of ends to be drawn in and the necessary
shafts. If we have, for instance, 100 threads per inch to be drawn on 4
shafts, we must give each shaft 25 heddles per inch. There are generally
between 25 and 45 heddles per inch on one shaft.
8. REDUCTION OF THE FILLING
Here we state the number of picks per inch, give directions as to doubling,
if such is necessary, and if more than one color or shuttle is used, the
rotation thereof.
9. CALCULATION OF WARP AND FILLING
The system adopted in this country for specifying the size of silk is based
on the weight in drams (avoirdupois) of a skein containing 1000 yards. A
skein, thus weighing 5 drams, is technically called 5-dram silk. The number
of yards of 1-dram silk to a pound must accordingly be 256000. The formulas
for figuring the amount of silk required for a piece of cloth are as
follows:
Warp Calculation
_Multiply_: Number of ends×length×count
-----------------------------
_Divide by_: 1000 yards×256 drams
[Page 72]
Filling Calculation
_Multiply:_ Picks×xply×width×length of piece×count
-------------------------------------- = lbs.
_Divide by:_ 1000 yards×256 drams
The result in both cases will be in pounds.
The system of grading the silk which is in vogue in Europe, and which is
employed by a number of mills on this side, is as follows:
1 skein of 500 meters, weighing 0,05 grams = 1 denier international
or 1 " 476 " " 0,053 " = 1 " Turin system
or 1 " 476 " " 0,051 " = 1 " Milan "
The warp calculation, taking the international denier, would run:
ends in warp×length×denier×0,05 gram
--------------------------------------
_divided by:_ 500 meters
for the filling: Picks per meter×xply×width×denier×0,05 gram
---------------------------------------------
_divided by:_ 500 meters
Result in metric weight, kilograms and grams.
10. FINISHING
Give directions as to the process of finishing to which the goods are to be
subjected, whether to be pressed, calendered, sized, moiréd, etc.
11. CALCULATION OF COST
If all the foregoing conditions are ascertained, and a sample or a piece of
the fabric executed, it remains to the manufacturer to determine the exact
figure at which he can produce the article. That this must be done with
great accuracy is naturally of the utmost importance, and the calculator
[Page 73]
must know in the first place the raw stock prices, and also be acquainted
with the details of the manufacturing process and the rates of wages paid
therein. As a rule, the manufacturer establishes a scale of prices covering
all the items of labor cost, mill expenses, etc., and uses this as a basis
for his calculations.
A rule or formula for this operation cannot very well be given, as the
methods vary in almost every establishment, each choosing the one best
adapted to its ideas or dictates of circumstances and conditions.
[Page 75]
DISPOSITION 1
_Taffeta glacé_
[Illustration: Fig. 89]
[Page 76]
#Length and Width#--One piece 100 yards long, 18¾ inches wide.
#Stock and Dye#--_Warp._--Ital. Organ., 24/26 deniers = 1,47 drams,
brown, bright, 14/16 oz.
_Filling._--Japan Tram, 28/30 deniers = 1,65 drams,
gold, bright 14/16 oz.
#Reed Calculation#--Per 1 inch, 70 dents at 3 single ends.
" 18¾ " 1313 "
add 13 " = 1% for shrinkage
----
Total 1326 dents.
#Drawing in#--1st edge, 9 dents at 3 double ends.
Ground, 1308 " at 3 single "
2d edge, 9 " at 3 double "
on 6 shafts, straight through.
#Warping Ticket#--1st edge, 27 double ends, brown.
Ground, 3924 single " "
2d edge, 27 double " "
----
Total 4032 single ends.
Length of warp 110 yards, including 10% for take up.
#Harness#--6 shafts, 3978 heddles per 19 inches.
1 " 35 " " 1 "
#Reduction of Filling#--Per inch, 100/102 picks, 2 ends.
#Warp Calculation#--? lbs = 4032 ends.
1 end = 110 yards.
1000 yards = 1,47 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 104 (4% waste).
4032×110×1,47×104
------------------- = 2,65 lbs., or 2 lbs. 10,4 oz.
1000×256×100
[Page 77]
#Filling Calculation#--? lbs. = 100 yards
1 yard = 36 inches.
1 inch = 102 \ picks.
2 / ends.
1 pick = 19 inches.
36 inches = 1 yard
1000 yards = 1,65 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 108 (8% waste).
100×36×102×2×19×165×108
------------------------- = 2,73 lbs., or 2 lbs. 11,7 ozs.
36×1000×256×100
* * * *
[Page 79]
DISPOSITION 2
_Surah 3-1_
[Illustration: Fig. 90]
[Page 80]
#Length and Width#--1 piece 50 yards long, 23½ in. wide.
#Stock and Dyeing#--_Warp._--Ital. Organ., 1,30 drams = 20/24 deniers,
black, bright, 40/50% = 22/24 ozs.
_Filling._--Cotton No. 120/2 black.
#Reed Calculation#--Per 1 inch, 80 dents at 2 single ends.
" 23½ inch, 1880 "
add 36 " = 2% for shrinkage.
----
Total 1916 dents.
#Drawing-in#--1st edge, 8 dents, 2 double ends.
Ground, 1900 " 2 single "
2d edge, 8 " 2 double "
on 4 shafts, straight draw.
#Warping Ticket#--1st edge, 16 double ends, black.
Ground, 3800 single " "
2d edge, 16 double " "
----
Total 3864 single ends.
Warp 54 yards long = 8% for take up.
#Harness#--4 shafts, 3832 heddles per 24 inches.
1 " 40 " " 1 "
#Reduction of Filling#--Per 1 inch, 120 picks, 1 end.
#Warp Calculation#--? lbs. = 4264 ends.
1 end = 54 yards.
1000 yards = 1,30 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 104 (4% waste).
3864×54×1,30×104
------------------ = 1,10 lbs., or 1 lb. 1,06 oz.
1000×256×100
[Page 81]
#Filling Calculation#-?lbs. = 50 yards.
1 yard = 36 inches.
1 inch = 120 picks.
1 pick = 24 inches.
36 inches = 1 yard
840 yards = 1 skein.
(No. 120/2) 60 skeins = 1 lb.
100 = 110 (10% waste).
50×36×120×24×110
------------------ = 3.14 lbs., or 3 lbs. 2.24 ozs.
36×840×60×100
* * * *
[Page 83]
#DISPOSITION 3#
_Satin Duchesse._
[Illustration: Fig. 91]
[Page 84]
#Length and Width#--One warp 300 yards long, 10 pieces of 60 yards
23 inches wide, 2 pieces in width, with one cut edge.
#Stock and Dyeing#--_Warp._-- Ital. Organ., 1-55/100 drams, black,
bright, 20/22 oz.
_Filling._-- Jap. Tram., 1-8/10 and 2-7/10
drams, black, souple, 40/44 oz.
We should use for this fabric 1 end filling, 5-thread, 4-5/10 drams,
but as we have none of this size on hand, we take: 1 end, 2 thread,
1-8/10 drams, and 1 end, 3 thread, 2-7/10 drams.
#Reed Calculation#--1 inch, 66 dents, 4 single ends.
46 " 3036 "
54 " (1¾% shrinkage).
----
Total ... 3090 dents.
#Drawing-in#-- {
1st edge, { 2 dents, 6×2, black.
{ 13 " 4×2, white.
Ground, 1514 " 4×1, black.
{ 2 " 6×2 "
Cut Edge { 1 " 2×4, "
{ 3 " empty.
{ 1 " 2×4, "
Ground, 1514 " 4×1, black.
2d edge, { 2 " 6×2, black.
{ 13 " 4×2, white.
Satin on 8 shafts, straight draw.
Cross-thread for split edge on 3 shafts, see design.
#Warping Ticket#-- Edge, { 12/2 black. }
{ 52/2 white. }
Ground, 6056/1 black. } twice over.
Edge, { 52/2 white. }
{ 12/2 black. }
12208 ends black, { 318 yards long.
416 " white, { = 6% shrinkage.
2/4 black for ground thread, 300 yards long.
2/4 " " whip " 360 " "
each one on a separate little roll.
[Page 85]
#Harness#--8 shafts, 12368 heddles, 47 in
1 " 33 " 1 "
for the split edge 3 shafts, of which one has only half a heddle.
#Filling#--Per 1 in., 80 picks, 2 ends (as described before).
#Warp Calculation#--? lbs. = 12224 ends, black (416 white).
1 end = 318 yards.
1,000 yards = 1,55 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 104 (4% waste).
(416) 12224×318×1.55×104
-------------------- = 24,477 lbs. org. black.
1000×256×100 = 0,833 " " white.
#Filling Calculation#--? lbs. = 300 yards.
1 yard = 36 inches.
1 inch = 80 picks.
1 pick = 47 inches.
36 inches = 1 yard.
1000 yards = 4,5 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 108 (8% waste).
300×36×80×47×4,5×108
---------------------- = 21,414 lbs.
36×1000×256×100
* * * *
[Page 87]
DISPOSITION 4
_Armure Satinée_
[Illustration: Fig. 92]
[Page 88]
#Length and Width#--One piece 60 yards long, 19 in. wide.
#Stock and Dyeing#--_Warp._--Jap. Organ., 1,48 drams, black, bright,
18/20 oz.
_Filling._--3 threads Jap. Tram., 2,95 drams,
black, bright, 24/26 oz.
#Reed Calculation#--Per 1 inch, 60 dents×4 single ends.
" 19 " 1140 "
32 " (3% for shrinkage).
----
Total . . . 1172 dents.
#Drawing-in#--1st edge, 12 dents × 4 double.
Ground, 1148 " × 4 single.
2d edge, 12 " × 4 double.
on 12 shafts, straight through,
or on 6 shafts, as design indicates.
#Warping Ticket#--1st edge, 48/2 black.
Ground, 4592/1 "
2d edge, 48/2 "
------
Total . . . 4784 single ends 64 yards long.
=6½% for take up.
#Harness#--6 shafts, 4688 heddles per 19½ inches.
1 " 40 " " 1 "
#Reduction of Filling#--Per 1 inch, 104 picks, 2 ends.
#Warp Calculation#--? lbs. = 4784 ends.
1 end = 64 yards.
1000 yards = 1,48 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 104 (4% waste).
4784×64×1,48×104
------------------ = 1,84 lbs., or 1 lb. 13,44 ozs.
1000×256×100
[Page 89]
#Filling Calculation#--? lbs. = 60 yards.
1 yard = 36 inches.
1 inch = 104 } picks.
2 } ends.
1 pick = 19½ inches.
36 inches = 1 yard.
1000 yards = 2,95 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 108 (8% waste).
60×36×104×2×19,5×2,95×108
--------------------------- = 3,03 lbs., or 3 lbs. 0,48 ozs.
36×1000×256×100
* * * *
[Page 91]
DISPOSITION 5
_Surface Printed Armure._
[Illustration: Fig. 93]
[Page 92]
#Length and Width#--One piece 50 yards long, 18½ in. wide.
#Stock and Dyeing#--_Warp._--Ital. Organ., 1,50 drams, 24/28 deniers,
white bright, pure dye.
_Filling._--5 thread Ital. Tram., 4 drams, 13/14
deniers, white, bright, pure dye.
#Reed Calculation#--Per 1 inch, 52 dents, 2×2.
" 18½ " 962 "
20 " (2% shrinkage).
----
Total . . . 982 dents.
#Drawing-in#--1st edge, 7 dents, 4×2 gros de Tours.
Ground, 968 " 2×2 armure
2d edge, 7 " 4×2 gros de Tours.
Armure ground on 12 shafts, straight draw.
Gros de Tours, edges on 4 shafts.
#Warping Ticket#--Ground warp, 54 yards.
1936/2 white.
Gros de Tours edges, 55 yards.
2×28/2 white, on separate rolls.
Total . . . 3984 single ends.
#Harness#--12 shafts, 1936 heddles, per 18½ inches.
1 " 8-2/3 " " 1 "
4 Shafts gros de Tours edges, with 28 heddles on each side.
#Reduction of Filling#--Per 1 inch, 96 picks, 1 end.
#Warp Calculation#--? lbs. = 3984 ends.
1 end = 54 yards.
1000 yards = 1,50 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 104 (4% waste).
3984×54×1,50×104
------------------ = 1,31 lbs., or 1 lb. 4,96 ozs.
1000×256×100
[Page 93]
#Filling Calculation#--? lbs. = 50 yards.
1 yard = 36 inches.
1 inch = 96 picks.
1 pick = 19 inches.
36 inches = 1 yard.
1000 yards = 4 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 108 (8% waste).
50×36×96×19×4×108
------------------- = 1,54 lbs., or 1 lb. 8,64 ozs.
36×1000×256×100
After weaving, the small flower effects have to be printed on the cloth.
* * * *
[Page 95]
DISPOSITION 6
_Pekin_: 8 shaft satin and repp.
[Illustration: Fig. 34]
[Page 96]
#Length and Width#--1 piece 100 yards long, 20¼ in. wide.
{ Ital. Organ., 1-35/100 drams, black,
{ bright, 20/22 oz.
#Stock and Dyeing#--_Warp._ { Ital. Organ., 1-15/100 drams, sky,
{ bright, pure dye
{ Cotton No. 100/2, scarlet.
_Filling._--3 threads, Jap. Tram., 2-8/10 drams,
scarlet, bright, 14/16 oz.
{6×1, black satin
#Reed Calculation#--Per 1 inch, 68 dents, {6×2, colored "
{2×1, " repp.
" 20¼ " 1377 "
23 " (1½% for shrinkage).
----
Total 1400 dents.
#Drawing-in#--1st edge, 7 dents, 6×2 satin. }
Ground, 34 " 6×1 " }
2 " 6×2 " }
10 " 6×1 " } twice }
2 " 2×1 repp. } over. }
10 " 6×1 satin. }
2 " 6×2 " }
39 " 6×1 " }
5 " 2×1 repp. } twice }
4 " 6×1 satin. } over. } 7 times
5 " 2×1 repp. } over.
15 " 6×1 satin. }
2 " 2×1 repp. }
15 " 6×1 satin. }
5 " 2×1 repp. } twice }
4 " 6×1 satin. } over. }
5 " 2×1 repp. }
5 " 6×1 satin. }
28 " 6×1 " }
2d edge, 7 " 6×2 " }
Satin on 1st section of 8 shaft skip draw.
Binder " 2nd " " 2 "
Repp " 3d " " 2 "
[Page 97]
On each side of every repp stripe two ends of the satin warp must be
entered on the 2 binder shafts (2d section), to prevent the ends of the
satin to slide over into the repp stripes.
#Warping Ticket#--I. _Beam satin_, 106 yards.
1st edge, 42/2 black.
Ground, 204/1 " }
12/2 sky. }
180/1 black. }
12/2 sky. }
234/1 black. }
48/2 sky. } 7 times over.
180/1 black. }
48/2 sky. }
30/1 black. }
168/1 " }
2d edge, 42/2 " }
6132 single ends black.
1680 " " sky.
II. _Beam repp_, 110 yards.
4/1 scarlet. }
4/1 " }
10/1 " }
10/1 " }
10/1 " } 7 times over.
4/1 " }
10/1 " }
10/1 " }
10/1 " }
504 single ends scarlet cotton
This warp has to be beamed in stripes. Make out a diagram for the warper
the same as shown in Fig. 95.
[Page 98]
[Illustration: Fig. 95]
#Harness#--Fig. 95 shows how to make a diagram of a harness for a Pekin.
The heddles are marked per one shaft. As the repp stripes are only small
ones, we use for the satin a full harness, that is, one without open spaces
for the repp stripe. All together we have in the satin warp 6888 single and
double ends to draw in; of these 252 ends are used for binders, on both
sides of the repp stripes. Thus remain for
8 shafts, 6636 heddles per 20½ inches
1 " 40 " " 1 "
#Reduction of Filling#--Per 1 inch, 144 picks, 1 end.
#Warp Calculation#--? lbs. = 6132 ends (1680 ends sky).
1 end = 106 yards.
1000 yards = 1,35 drams (sky 1,15 drams).
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 104 (4% waste).
6132×106×1,35×104
------------------- = 3,56 lbs. for black, or 3 lbs. 8,96 ozs.
1000×256×100
1680×106×1,15×104
------------------- = 0,83 lbs. for sky, or 0 lbs. 13,28 ozs.
1000×256×100
[Page 99]
? lbs. = 504 ends.
1 end = 110 yards.
840 yards = 1 skein.
(No. 100/2) 50 skeins = 1 lb.
100 = 104 (4% waste).
504×110×104
------------- = 1,37 lbs. scarlet cotton, or 1 lb. 5,92 ozs.
840×50×100
#Filling Calculation#--? lbs. = 100 yards.
1 yard = 36 inches.
1 inch = 144 picks.
1 pick = 21 inches.
36 inches = 1 yard.
1000 yards = 2,8 drams.
256 drams = 1 lb.
100 = 108 (8% waste).
100×36×144×21×2,8×108
----------------------- = 3,57 lbs., or 3 lbs. 9,12 ozs.
36×1000×256×100
* * * * *
[Page 100]
JACQUARD WEAVES
Jacquard weaves usually show on a plain ground figure or flower effects. To
obtain these effects the ground is made of one weave, say taffeta, while
the figures or flowers are produced in another weave, say satin.
We enter the warp through a jacquard harness, and according to the repeat
use a 200, 400, 600, 900, 1200, etc., hook jacquard machine, which means
200, 400, 600, 900 and 1200 ends per repeat.
With a 600-hook machine a larger repeat can be produced than with a
499-hook machine. For instance, if we want to make a cloth the figures of
which are to be two inches apart, it is a two-inch repeat, and use the
count of 50/4 or 200 ends per inch, we can use a 400-hook machine, 2 in. x
200 ends. But we can make this cloth also on a 1200-hook machine, only the
repeat must be designed three times. The advantage of using a 1200-hook
machine with the count 50/4 is that 2, 3, 4, 6-inch repeats can be
produced, while with a 400-hook machine, only a 2-inch repeat can be made.
There is no end to all the different weaves and the possible flower and
other pattern effects that can be made with the jacquard machine. For a
jacquard weaving plant the designing is the most important factor.
* * * * *
BOX LOOM WEAVES INCLUDING CREPES
Box looms are required for weaves such as bayadères, checks, plaids (see
pages 63-65), bengalines, crêpes, etc., where two or more shuttles are
needed to bring out the effect.
For the crêpes (crêpe de chine, crêpe georgette) only two shuttles are
needed, while plaids and other articles are made with more shuttles.
To weave such articles the loom or the lay must be fitted with two or more
shuttle boxes on one or both sides of the loom.
[Page 101]
If a manufacturer decides to change plain looms to box looms or buy new box
looms, it is wise to get 4 × 4 boxes, or four shuttle boxes on each side.
With these looms about everything can be made that is called for in
box-loom effects, and as styles change, it is wise to be prepared.
* * * * *
MANUFACTURING COSTS
The calculator first ascertains for the warp: What silk will be used, the
cost of the same, total number of ends in the warps for the amount of silk,
cost of throwing, dyeing, winding, warping, twisting, entering, and
weaving.
Then the filling: Silk to be used, how much, cost of silk, cost of
throwing, dyeing, winding, doubling, quilling.
After this determine the cost of weaving, cloth picking, finishing, factory
costs, and selling expenses.
To-day most of the operations are paid by "piece work."
The calculator must always take into consideration that poor raw silk or
poor dyeing make production slow, increase the cost of labor, and also that
more waste will be made.
THROWING: Regular organ usually has 16 turns per inch in the first twist
and 14 turns to the inch in the second or reverse twist. Tram receives only
one twisting, about three turns to the inch.
As the warp twisting-in is paid for at so much per hundred or thousand
ends, no matter how short or long the warp is, it is a saving to make the
warps as long as possible, especially in raw, black and staple colors.
The calculator must not forget the cost of entering the first warp in a
harness, also the reeding.
Most mills figure the cost of harness and reed in the expense accounts. If
plain and fancy goods are made an extra percentage should be figured for
the latter.
[Page 102]
EXPENSES are figured differently, as almost every manufacturer has his own
system. If a mill makes only a few staple articles it is easy to put down
the cost of expenses. Say the mill has a production of 500,000 yards per
year, that the expense amounts to $35,000, the cost then is 7 cents per
yard.
Manufacturers making all kinds of goods sometimes figure the expenses in
percentage, say, for plain goods, with a few picks, like gros-grain, peau
de soie, etc., 10 per cent. per yard. Taffeta, satin, etc., having more
picks, 12½ per cent. per yard, and fancy and jacquard goods, 15 per cent.
per yard. In the expense account we include all charges except raw silk,
throwing, dyeing and piece work.
SELLING EXPENSES. Before a calculation is finished we must add the selling
expenses to the cost, also take account of the trade discount. Small mills
usually sell through a commission house, which pays all expenses and
charges a certain commission. Many large firms have their own selling end,
and some have their sales guaranteed by a commission house or a bank.
[Page 103]
CALCULATIONS
The prices marked in the following calculations are about as in "normal
times." Absolutely correct piece work prices cannot be given as different
localities have different prices.
Calculations are usually made per 100 yards, 100-meter warps.
Most goods gain from 3 to 7 per cent. in weaving. That is, if we make a
warp of 300 meters for a satin and we obtain 315 yards of cloth, this gain
should not be calculated, as usually there is no account taken of samples
used in the selling department. But the loss in length should be figured
and taken account of on goods with a heavy rib, such as moiré, faille, etc.
DISP. 7--A 3 1/3-inch repeat can be obtained with a 600-hook jacquard
machine, seven repeats in a width of 23 inches.
DISP. 8--Taffeta weave, but the two cotton picks must go in one hole. This
article can only be made with at least two shuttle boxes on each side. For
warping use a single and double cross reed, heavy cotton, no knots must be
tied.
DISP. 10--This article must be warped with as much tension as possible and
no knots should be tied in. Silk is to be delivered on bobbins from
throwster.
CANTON CREPE
DISP. 9--Can also be made with Canton silk for filling and may be called
Canton crêpe. As Canton silk is much cheaper than Japan, the manufacturer
can use 4-thread Canton instead of 3-thread Japan for filling at a little
difference in cost, thus the cloth will be heavier, but Canton silk is not
as even and clean as Japan.
[Page 104]
Article--TAFFETA GLACE Reed 70/3
Disp. 1 Width 18¾ in.
Warp--Ital. Ex. Class 12/14 $5.00 raw silk
.60 throwing
2-Thread Organ. brown bright .45 dyeing
16-oz. .15 winding
-----
raw lbs. 2.60 $6.20 $16.23
Warping--4032 at 3¢. 1.21
Twisting--3978 at 25¢. per 300 meters .33
Filling--Jap. Tram. Best No. 1 13/15 $4.25 raw silk
.45 throwing
2/2 ends 104 picks .45 dyeing
.15 winding
gold bright 16 oz. .15 doubling
.10 quilling
-----
raw lbs. 2.73 $5.55 15.02
Weaving 7.00
Picking 1.00
Finishing 1.00
Expenses 7.00
------
$48.79
5% trade discount
7½% selling commission
Divide by 87½
Cost per yard = $0.5576
* * * *
Article--SURAH 3-1 Reed 80/2
Disp. 2 Width 36 in.
Warp--Ital. Ex. Class. 10/12 $5.20
.65
2-Thread Organ. bright black .81 discount 15%
24 oz. .30 dyed 20%
-----
lbs. 3.36 $6.96 $23.39
Warping--5904 at 2¾¢. 1.62
Twisting--5872 at 35¢.--600 lb. warp .25
Filling--cotton 120/1 $1.25
.10 dye
black 1 end 120 picks .08 winding
.07 quilling
-----
lbs. 9.50 $1.50 14.25
Weaving 12.00
Picking 1.50
Finishing 2.00
Expenses 7.00
-----
$62.01
5% discount
6% commission
Divide by 89
Cost per yard = $0.6967
* * * *
[Page 105]
Article--SATIN DUCHESSE Reed 66/4
Disp. 3 Width 2 x 23 in.
Warp--Ital. Ex. Class. 12/14 $5.00
.60
2-Thread Organ. black bright .73
22 oz. .21
-----
lbs. 8.50 $6.54 $55.59
Warping--12624 at 2¾¢. 3.47
Twisting--12256 at 25¢. 600 meters .51
Filling--Jap. Tram No. 1--14/16 $4.00
.40
black souple 44 oz. 1.60 net
.40
1/2 and 1/3 = 1/5 80 picks .40 doubling
.30
-----
lbs. 7.14 $7.10 50.69
Weaving 13.00
Picking 2.00
Finishing 2.50
Expenses 8.00
-------
$135.76
Divide by 89
Cost per yard = $0.7627
* * * *
Article--ARMURE SATIN Reed 60/4
Disp. 4 Width 26 in.
STOCK AND DYE
Warp--Jap. Ex. 12/14 $4.75
.60
2-Thread Organ. black bright .64
20 oz. .19
-----
lbs. 4.30 $6.18 $26.57
Warping--6520 at 2¾¢. 1.79
Twisting--6424 at 25¢. 600 meters .27
Filling--Jap. Tram No. 1 16/18 $4.00
.30
black bright 26 oz. .94
.25
2/3 ends 104 picks .25
.17
-----
lbs. 6.80 $5.91 40.19
Weaving 10.00
Picking 1.00
Finishing 1.00
Expenses 7.00
------
$87.82
Divide by 89
Cost per yard = $0.9867
* * * *
[Page 106]
Article--PRINTED ARMURE Reed 52/2/2
Disp. 5 Width 18½ in.
STOCK AND DYE
Warp--Ital. Ex. Class. 12/14 $5.00
2-Thread Organ. white bright .60
P.D. .23
.12
-----
lbs. 2.62 $5.95 $15.59
Warping--3984/1 at 3¢. 1.20
Twisting--1992/2 at 30¢. 300 meters .20
Filling--Ital. Tram. souple 13/14 $4.50
.30
white bright P.D. .23
.10
1/5 end 96 picks .07
-----
lbs. 3.08 $5.20 16.02
Weaving 8.00
Picking 1.00
Finishing and Printing 5.00
Expenses 8.00
------
$55.01
Divide by 87½
Cost per yard = $0.6287
* * * *
[Page 107]
Article--SATIN STRIPED REPS Reed 60/62
Disp. 6 Width 20¼ in.
STOCK AND DYE
Warp--Ital. Ex. Organ. 24/26 $5.00
black bright 22 oz. .60
.73
.21
-----
lbs. 3.56 $6.54 $23.28
Ital. Ex. Organ. 18/20 $5.20
.65
sky bright P.D. .23
.12
-----
lbs. .83 $6.20 5.15
Cotton 100/2 $1.00
.12
.08
-----
scarlet lbs. 1.37 $1.20 1.64
Warping--8316 at 4¢. 3.32
Twisting--7434 at 50¢. 300 meters 1.24
Filling--Jap. tram. No. 1 14/16 $4.00
.35
scarlet bright 16 oz. 1/3 ends .45
.15
144 picks. lbs. 3.57 .10
-----
$5.05 18.04
Weaving 12.00
Picking 1.00
Finishing 1.00
------
$66.67
Expenses 15% 10.00
------
$76.67
Divide by 87½
Cost per yard = $0.8763
* * * *
[Page 108]
Article--MESSALINE BROCADE Reed 60/3
Disp. 7 Width 23 in.
Warp--Jap. Ex. 13/15 $4.50
.60
2-Thread navy bright 16 oz. .45
.15
----
lbs. 3.20 $5.70 $18.24
Warping--4320 at 3¢. 1.30
Twisting--4260 at 30¢. 300 meters .41
Filling--Jap. Tram No. 1 13/15 $4.00
.35
emerald ex. bright dye 24 oz. .95
.25
1/3 ends 100 picks .15
-----
lbs. 2.50 $5.70 14.25
Weaving 9.00
Picking 1.00
Finishing 1.00
------
$45.20
Expenses 15% 6.78
------
$51.98
Divide by 87½
Cost per yard = $0.5941
* * * *
Article--BENGALINE Reed 72/2 by 1 single; 1 double
Disp. 8 Width 36 in.
Warp--Jap. ex. 13/15 $4.50
.60
2-Thread Organ. black bright .64
20 oz. .19
-----
lbs. 5.77 $5.93 $34.22
Warping--7964 at 2¾¢. 2.19
Twisting--5296 at 30¢. 600 meters .27
Filling--56 picks by $4.50
5 organ. 2 Cotton .60
.64
.19 .45
.12 .10
-----
40 picks Organ. as warp $6.05 .08 6.05
lbs. 1 .07
16 picks black cotton 15/4 -----
lbs. 22.50 $ .70 15.75
Weaving 12.00
Picking 1.50
Finishing 3.00
Expenses 8.00
------
$82.98
Divide by 91
Cost per yard = $0.9119
* * * *
[Page 109]
Article--CREPE DE CHINE (Taffeta weave) Reed 60/2/2
Disp. 9 Width 40 in.
44½ in. in reed
Warp--Jap. Ex. Grege 20/22 $4.50
.05 winding
-----
2% waste lbs. 5.60 $4.55 $25.48
Warping--5340/2 at 2½¢. 2.67
Twisting--5340/2 at 25¢. 600 meters .23
Filling--Jap. No. 1 13/15
4 ends hard twist 60 turns $4.00
1.25 throwing
84 picks by 2 right, 2 left 0.05 quilling
twist -----
25% waste and shrinkage $5.30
lbs. 6.00 31.80
Weaving 9.00
Finishing and dyeing 5.00
Picking 1.00
Expenses 7.00
------
$82.18
5% discount
5% selling expense
Divide by 90
Cost per yard = $0.9131
* * * *
Article--CREPE GEORGETTE Reed 50/2
(Taffeta weave) by 1 right, 1 left twist
Disp. 10 Width 40 in. 47 in. in reed
Warp--Ital. Ex. Class 16/18 Raw $5.20
1.60
-----
2-Thread hardtwist 75 turns $6.80 $36.72
30% shrinkage and waste lbs. 5.40
Warping--4640/1 30/2 4760 at 4¢. 1.90
Twisting--4700 at 50¢. 600 meters .40
Filling--Same silk as warp
100 picks by 2 right, 2 left
twist $5.20
1.60
.10
----
lbs. 5.00 $6.90 34.50
Weaving 15.00
Picking 1.00
Finishing and dyeing 6.00
------
$95.52
Expenses 12½% 11.94
-------
$107.46
Divide by 87½
Cost per yard = $1.2281
[Page 110]
CALCULATION BLANK
ARTICLE_____________________________________REED_____________________
DISP________________________________________WIDTH____________________
WARP_________________________________________________________________
| | | | |
--------------------------------------------|---|---|---|---|--------
| | | | |
--------------------------------------------|---|---|---|---|--------
| | | | |
--------------------------------------------|---|---|---|---|--------
| | | | |
WARPING_____________________________________|___|___|___|___|________
| | | | |
TWISTING____________________________________|___|___|___|___|________
| | | | |
FILLING_____________________________________|___|___|___|___|________
| | | | |
____________________________________________|___|___|___|___|________
| | | | |
WEAVING_____________________________________|___|___|___|___|________
| | | | |
PICKING_____________________________________|___|___|___|___|________
| | | | |
FINISHING___________________________________|___|___|___|___|________
| | | | |
EXPENSES____________________________________|___|___|___|___|________
| | | | |
| | | | |
--------------------------------------------+---+---+---+---+--------
PRICE PER YARD
[Page 111]
INDEX
DRAWING-IN, 7
Straight Draws, 7
Skip Draws, 9
Point Draws, 9
Section Draws, 10
THE WEAVES AND THEIR CONSTRUCTION, 15
The Taffeta Weave, 17
Gros de Tours Weaves, 19
Serge Weaves, 20
Twill Weaves, 20
FILLING EFFECTS 21
Satin de Lyon, 21
Levantine, 21
Polonaise, 22
Serge grosse coté, 22
Serge Romaine, 23
Serge, 23
WARP EFFECTS, 25
Levantine, 25
EVENSIDED TWILLS, 26
Surah, 26
Croise, 26
POINTED TWILLS, 27
SATIN WEAVES, 32
Satine de Chine, 34
Satin Merveilleux, 34
7 Harness Satin, 35
Duchesse, 35
IRREGULAR SATINS, 39
Satin Ture, 39
Satin à la Reine, 40
DERIVATIVE WEAVES, 41
From the Taffeta, 41
From the Twills, 43
From the Satin Weave, 46
Cannele and Repp Weaves, 49
DOUBLE FACED FABRICS, 55
Warp Effects, 55
FILLING EFFECTS, 58
Pekins, 60
Bayadères, 63
[Page 112]
Checks and Plaids, 65
DECOMPOSITION, 67
The Weave, 68
Length and Width of the Fabric, 68
The Stock and Its Dye, 69
Reed Calculation, 70
Drawing-in the Warp in Harness and Reed, 70
Warping Ticket, 71
Harness Arrangement, 71
Reduction of the Filling, 71
Calculation of Warp and Filling, 71
Finishing, 72
Calculation of Cost, 72
DISPOSITIONS, 75
JACQUARD WEAVES, 100
Box Loom Weaves Including Crêpes, 100
Manufacturing Costs, 101
CALCULATIONS, 103
Calculation Blank, 110
[Page 113]
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* * * * *
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