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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 10, Slice 8 "France" to "Francis Joseph I."   By:

Book cover

First Page:

Transcriber's notes:

(1) Numbers following letters (without space) like C2 were originally printed in subscript. Letter subscripts are preceded by an underscore, like C n.

(2) Characters following a carat (^) were printed in superscript.

(3) Side notes were relocated to function as titles of their respective paragraphs.

(4) Macrons and breves above letters and dots below letters were not inserted.

(5) The following typographical errors have been corrected:

ARTICLE France: "The importance of their commercial relations was brought into relief as though it were a new fact." 'commercial' amended from 'commerical'.

ARTICLE France: "The revenues of the Carolingian monarch (which are no longer identical with the finances of the state) consisted chiefly in the produce of the royal lands (villae), ..." 'identical' amended from 'indentical'.

ARTICLE France: "The most salient features of feudal succession were the right of primogeniture and the preference given to heirs male ..." 'preference' amended from 'perference'.

ARTICLE France: "The law of the 15th of March 1850 established the liberty of secondary education, but it conferred certain privileges on the Catholic clergy, a clear sign of the spirit of social conservatism which was the leading motive for its enactment." 'The' amended from 'Thd'.

ARTICLE France: "... on which occasion he exercised his right of dissolution against a chamber, the moderate but decidedly republican majority in which he was re elected by the country." added 'he'.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME X, SLICE VIII

France to Francis Joseph I.

ARTICLES IN THIS SLICE:

FRANCE (part) FRANCIS I. (king of France) FRANCESCHI, JEAN BAPTISTE FRANCIS II. (king of France) FRANCESCHI, PIERO DE' FRANCIS I. (king of Sicily) FRANCESCHINI, BALDASSARE FRANCIS II. (king of Sicily) FRANCHE COMTÉ FRANCIS IV. FRANCHISE FRANCIS V. FRANCIA FRANCIS OF ASSISI, ST. FRANCIA, JOSÉ GASPAR RODRIGUEZ FRANCIS OF MAYRONE FRANCIABIGIO FRANCIS OF PAOLA, ST FRANCIS FRANCIS OF SALES, ST FRANCIS I. (Roman emperor) FRANCIS, SIR PHILIP FRANCIS II. (Roman emperor) FRANCIS JOSEPH I.

FRANCE (Continued from Volume 10 slice 7).

EXTERIOR POLICY 1870 1909

The new epoch.

The Franco German War marks a turning point in the history of the exterior policy of France as distinct as does the fall of the ancient monarchy or the end of the Napoleonic epoch. With the disappearance of the Second Empire, by its own fault, on the field of Sedan in September 1870, followed in the early months of 1871 by the proclamation of the German empire at Versailles and the annexation of Alsace and Lorraine under the treaty of peace of Frankfort, France descended from its primacy among the nations of continental Europe, which it had gradually acquired in the half century subsequent to Waterloo. It was the design of Bismarck that united Germany, which had been finally established under his direction by the war of 1870, should take the place hitherto occupied by France in Europe. The situation of France in 1871 in no wise resembled that after the French defeat of 1815, when the First Empire, issue of the Revolution, had been upset by a coalition of the European monarchies which brought back and supported on his restored throne the legitimate heir to the French crown. In 1871 the Republic was founded in isolation. France was without allies, and outside its frontiers the form of its executive government was a matter of interest only to its German conquerors. Bismarck desired that France should remain isolated in Europe and divided at home... Continue reading book >>


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