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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 8, Slice 3 "Destructors" to "Diameter"   By:

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text. Due to space constraints, italics denoting underscores were not used in the tables.

THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME VIII slice III

Destructor to Diameter

DESTRUCTOR ( continued from volume 8, slice 2, page 0108. ) ... in main flues, &c. (g) The chimney draught must be assisted with forced draught from fans or steam jet to a pressure of 1½ in. to 2 in. under grates by water gauge. (h) Where a destructor is required to work without risk of nuisance to the neighbouring inhabitants, its efficiency as a refuse destructor plant must be primarily kept in view in designing the works, steam raising being regarded as a secondary consideration. Boilers should not be placed immediately over a furnace so as to present a large cooling surface, whereby the temperature of the gases is reduced before the organic matter has been thoroughly burned. (i) Where steam power and a high fuel efficiency are desired a large percentage of CO {2} should be sought in the furnaces with as little excess of air as possible, and the flue gases should be utilized in heating the air supply to the grates, and the feed water to the boilers. (j) Ample boiler capacity and hot water storage feed tanks should be included in the design where steam power is required.

[Sidenote: Cost.]

As to the initial cost of the erection of refuse destructors, few trustworthy data can be given. The outlay necessarily depends, amongst other things, upon the difficulty of preparing the site, upon the nature of the foundations required, the height of the chimney shaft, the length of the inclined or approach roadway, and the varying prices of labour and materials in different localities. As an example may be mentioned the case of Bristol, where, in 1892, the total cost of constructing a 16 cell Fryer destructor was £11,418, of which £2909 was expended on foundations, and £1689 on the chimney shaft; the cost of the destructor proper, buildings and approach road was therefore £6820, or about £426 per cell. The cost per ton of burning refuse in destructors depends mainly upon (a) The price of labour in the locality, and the number of "shifts" or changes of workmen per day; (b) the type of furnace adopted; (c) the nature of the material to be consumed; (d) the interest on and repayment of capital outlay. The cost of burning ton for ton consumed, in high temperature furnaces, including labour and repairs, is not greater than in slow combustion destructors. The average cost of burning refuse at twenty four different towns throughout England, exclusive of interest on the cost of the works, is 1s. 1½d. per ton burned; the minimum cost is 6d. per ton at Bradford, and the maximum cost 2s. 10d. per ton at Battersea. At Shoreditch the cost per ton for the year ending on the 25th of March 1899, including labour, supervision, stores, repairs, &c. (but exclusive of interest on cost of works), was 2s. 6.9d. The quantity of refuse burned per cell per day of 24 hours varies from about 4 tons up to 20 tons. The ordinary low temperature destructor, with 25 sq. ft. grate area, burns about 20 lb. of refuse per square foot of grate area per hour, or between 5 and 6 tons per cell per 24 hours. The Meldrum destructor furnaces at Rochdale burn as much as 66 lb. per square foot of grate area per hour, and the Beaman and Deas destructor at Llandudno 71.7 lb. per square foot per hour. The amount, however, always depends materially on the care observed in stoking, the nature of the material, the frequency of removal of clinker, and on the question whether the whole of the refuse passed into the furnace is thoroughly cremated... Continue reading book >>


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