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Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th Edition, Volume 3, Part 1, Slice 2 "Baconthorpe" to "Bankruptcy"   By:

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Transcriber's note: A few typographical errors have been corrected: they are listed at the end of the text. Volume and page numbers have been incorporated into the text of each page as: v.03 p.0001.

[=a] signifies "a with macron"; [h.] "h with dot below"; [vs] "s with caron"; and so forth. In the article BALLISTICS, [Integral,a:b] or [Sum,a:b] indicates a definite integral or a summation between lower limit a and upper limit b. [Integral] by itself indicates an indefinite integral. [=3].6090480 etc. denote a barred digit in logarithms.

Musical pitches are expressed in Acoustical Society of America notation: C4 is middle C, B3 the tone below.

THE ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA

A DICTIONARY OF ARTS, SCIENCES, LITERATURE AND GENERAL INFORMATION

ELEVENTH EDITION

VOLUME III

AUSTRIA LOWER to BISECTRIX

[E Text Edition of Volume III Part 1 of 2, Slice 2 of 3 BACONTHORPE to BANKRUPTCY]

[v.03 p.0156]

BACONTHORPE [BACON, BACO, BACCONIUS], JOHN (d. 1346), known as "the Resolute Doctor," a learned Carmelite monk, was born at Baconthorpe in Norfolk. He seems to have been the grandnephew of Roger Bacon (Brit. Mus. Add. MS. 19. 116). Brought up in the Carmelite monastery of Blakeney, near Walsingham, he studied at Oxford and Paris, where he was known as "Princeps" of the Averroists. Renan, however, says that he merely tried to justify Averroism against the charge of heterodoxy. In 1329 he was chosen twelfth provincial of the English Carmelites. He appears to have anticipated Wycliffe in advocating the subordination of the clergy to the king. In 1333 he was sent for to Rome, where, we are told, he first maintained the pope's authority in cases of divorce; but this opinion he retracted. He died in London in 1346. His chief work, Doctoris resoluti Joannis Bacconis Anglici Carmelitae radiantissimi opus super quattuor sententiarum libris (published 1510), has passed through several editions. Nearly three centuries later, it was still studied at Padua, the last home of Averroism, and Lucilio Vanini speaks of him with great veneration.

See Brucker, Hist. Crit. iii. 865; Stöckl, Phil. d. Mittel. ii. 1044 1045; Hauréau, Phil. Scol. ii. 476; K. Prantl, Ges. d. Logik , iii. 318. For information as to his life, not found otherwise and of doubtful accuracy, see J. B. de Lezana's Annales Sacri , iv.

BACSANYI, JANOS (1763 1845), Hungarian poet, was born at Tapolcza on the 11th of May 1763. In 1785 he published his first work, a patriotic poem, The Valour of the Magyars . In the same year he obtained a situation as clerk in the treasury at Kaschau, and there, in conjunction with other two Hungarian patriots, edited the Magyar Museum , which was suppressed by the government in 1792. In the following year he was deprived of his clerkship; and in 1794, having taken part in the conspiracy of Bishop Martinovich, he was thrown into the state prison of the Spielberg, near Brünn, where he remained for two years. After his release he took a considerable share in the Magyar Minerva , a literary review, and then proceeded to Vienna, where he obtained a post in the bank, and married. In 1809 he translated Napoleon's proclamation to the Magyars, and, in consequence of this anti Austrian act, had to take refuge in Paris. After the fall of Napoleon he was given up to the Austrians, who allowed him to reside at Linz, on condition of never leaving that town. He published a collection of poems at Pest, 1827 (2nd ed. Buda, 1835), and also edited the poetical works of Anyos and Faludi. He died at Linz on the 12th of May 1845.

BACTERIOLOGY. The minute organisms which are commonly called "bacteria"[1] are also known popularly under other designations, e.g. "microbes," "micro organisms," "microphytes," "bacilli," "micrococci." All these terms, including the usual one of bacteria, are unsatisfactory; for "bacterium," "bacillus" and "micrococcus" have narrow technical meanings, and the other terms are too vague to be scientific... Continue reading book >>


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