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Scientific American Supplement, No. 344, August 5, 1882   By:

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[Illustration]

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT NO. 344

NEW YORK, August 5, 1882

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XIV, No. 344.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

I. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS. The Panama Canal. By MANUEL EISSLER. I. Historical notes. Spanish Discoveries in Central America. Early explorations. Nicaragua projects. Panama railway, etc.

Improved Averaging Machine.

Compound Beam Engine. 4 figures. Borsig's improved compound beam engine.

Power Hammers with Movable Fulcrum. By DANIEL LONGWORTH. 5 figures.

The Bicheroux System of Furnaces Applied to the Puddling of Iron. 2 figures.

Gessner's Continuous Cloth Pressing Machine. 3 figures.

Novelties in Ring Spindles. 4 figures.

Improvements in Woolen Carding Engines.

II. NATURAL HISTORY. Metamorphosis of the Deer's Antlers. Annual changes. 9 figures.

Monkeys. By A.R. WALLACE. Comparison of skeletons of man, orang outang, and chimpanzee. Other anatomical resemblances and diversities. The different kinds of monkeys and the countries they inhabit. American monkeys. Lemurs. Distribution, affinities, and zoological rank of monkeys.

Silk Producing Bombyces and other Lepidoptera reared in 1881. By ALFRED WAILLY, Member Lauriat de la Societe d'Acclimatation de France. An extended and important European, Asiatic, and American silk worms, and other silk producers.

III. MINERALOGY, METALLURGY, ETC. The Mineralogical Localities In and Around New York City and the Minerals Occurring Therein. By NELSON H. DARTON. Chances for collecting within one hour's ride of New York. Methods of collecting and testing. Localities on Bergen Hill. The Weehawken Tunnel. Minerals and modes of occurrence. Calcite. Natrolite. Pectolite. Datholite. Apopholite. Phrenite. Iron and copper pyrites. Stilbite. Laumonite. Heulandite.

Antiseptics.

Crystallization and its Effects Upon Iron. By N.B. WOOD. Beauty of Crystals. Nature of cohesion. Cleavage. Growth of crystals. Some large crystals. Cast iron. Influence of phosphorus and sulphur. Nature of steel. Burnt steel. Effect of annealing.

IV. ARCHITECTURE, ART, ETC. The Cathedral of Burgos, Spain. Full page illustration from photograph.

Description of Burgos Cathedral.

Photo Engraving on Zinc and Copper. By LEON VIDAL.

Meridian Line. A surveyor's method of finding the true meridian. By R.W. MCFARLAND.

V. ELECTRICITY, ETC. Electro Mania. By W. MATTIEU WILLIAMS. Example of electrical exaggeration and delusion. Early scientific attempts at electro motors, electric lamps, etc.

Action of Magnets Upon the Voltaic Arc. By TH. DU MONCEL. 2 figures.

Volckmar's Secondary Batteries.

METAMORPHOSIS OF THE DEER'S ANTLERS.

Every year in March the deer loses its antlers, and fresh ones immediately begin to grow, which exceed in size those that have just been lost. Few persons probably have been able to watch and observe the habits of the animal after it has lost its antlers. It will, therefore, be of interest to examine the accompanying drawings, by Mr. L. Beckmann, one of them showing a deer while shedding its antlers, and the other as the animal appears after losing them. In the first illustration the animal has just lost one of its antlers, and fright and pain cause it to throw its head upward and become disturbed and uneasy. The remaining antler draws down one side of the head and is very inconvenient for the animal. The remaining antler becomes soon detached from its base, and the deer turns as if ashamed of having lost its ornament and weapon lowers its head, and sorrowfully moves to the adjoining thicket, where it hides... Continue reading book >>


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