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Scientific American Supplement, No. 508, September 26, 1885   By:

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[Illustration]

SCIENTIFIC AMERICAN SUPPLEMENT NO. 508

NEW YORK, SEPTEMBER 26, 1885

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XX., No. 508.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

PAGE I. CHEMISTRY AND METALLURGY. The Cowles Electric Smelting Process. 5 figures. 8113

On the Electrical Furnace and the Reduction of the Oxides of Boron, Silicon, Aluminum, and other Metals by Carbon. By EUGENE H. COWLES, ALFRED H. COWLES, and CHARLES F. MABERY. 8112

Chemical Action of Light. 8117

Eutexia. Cryohydrates. Eutectic salt alloys and metal alloys. 8117

Chinoline. 8118

Method of Rapid Estimation of Urea. 1 figure. 8118

Assay of Earthenware Glaze. 8112

II. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS. Deep Shafts and Deep Mining. 8104

Sinking of the Quievrechain Working Shaft. Numerous figures. 8108

On the Elementary Principles of the Gas Engine. An interesting paper read before the Gas Institute by Mr. DENNY LANE, of Cork, and discussion following. 8109

M. MEIZEL'S Reciprocating Exhauster. 8112

Automatic Siphon for Irrigation. 1 figure. 8113

III. ELECTRICITY, TELEGRAPHY, ETC. Optical Telegraphy. Cryptography. Preservation of Telegrams. The projector in optical telegraphy. Use of balloons. 4 figures. 8114

A New Style of Submarine Telegraph. 4 figures. 8115

A New Circuit Cutter. 2 figures. 8115

New Micro Telephonic Apparatus. 5 figures. 8116

Messrs. Kapp and Crompton's Measuring Instruments. 5 figures. 8116

IV. GEOLOGY, ETC. Permeability of Sand Rock. By F.H. NEWELL. 8103

The Grotto of Gargas, in the Pyrenees. Paleontological remains found therein. 2 engravings. 8103

Remarkable Wells and Caverns in Yucatan. By ALICE D. LE PLONGEON. 8105

V. NATURAL HISTORY. The Cabbage Butterfly and the Peacock Butterfly. 8105

VI. BOTANY AND HORTICULTURE. The Bhotan Cypress (Cupressus torulosa). With engraving. 8106

The Pitcher Plant. 8106

What is a Plant? 8106

Camellias. Culture of the same. 8106

Arisæma Fimbriatum. Leaf, spathe, and floral details. With engraving. 8107

VII. MISCELLANEOUS. Striking a Light with Bamboo. 8107

Experiments in Memory. 8107

PERMEABILITY OF SAND ROCK.

By FREDERICK H. NEWELL, M.E.

Among oil producers, there has been much discussion as to whether the sand rock in which petroleum occurs is of necessity fissured or is still in its original unbroken condition.

The earliest and most natural theory, which for years was indisputed, and is still given by some textbooks, was, that oil wells reached a cavity filled with petroleum.

Within the past few years, however, the opinion has been gaining ground that the oil is stored in the sandrock itself in the minute spaces between the small grains of sand, not entirely filled by cementing material, and that crevices holding and conducting oil are rare, all fissures as a rule being confined to the upper fresh water bearing rocks of the well... Continue reading book >>


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