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Scientific American Supplement, No. 492, June 6, 1885   By:

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NEW YORK, JUNE 6, 1885.

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XIX, No. 492.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.


I. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS. The New Spanish Artillery. 2 engravings.

Qualitative Tests for Steel Rails. By L. TETMAJER.

A New Form of Small Bessemer Plant. By A. TRAPPEN.

Triple Compound Engines. A paper read by A.E. SEATON before the Institution of Naval Architects.

Early History of the Steam Jack.

Bridge over the River Adige, at Verona. 13 figures.

Pumping Machinery. Mine pumps. Direct acting steam pumps. By E.D. LEAVITT.

Improved Gun Pressure Gauge. 2 figures.

Measuring the Thickness of Boiler Plates.

On an Express Engine.

II. TECHNOLOGY. Improved Plaiting Machine. With engraving.

Self acting Shuttle Guard. 1 figure.

Ruler and Triangle for Hatching.

The Distillation of Sea Water. 1 figure.

Aids to Correct Exposure on Photographic Plates. An interesting paper by W. GOODMAN.

Isochromatic Photography. By FRED. E. IVES. 2 figures.

Distortion from Expansion of the Paper in Photography.

III. ELECTRICITY, ETC. On the Fritts Selenium Cells and Batteries. A paper read before the American Association by C.E. FRITTS.

Electricity Applied to the Manufacture of Varnish. 2 figures.

Naglo Brothers' Telephone System. 3 figures.

The Gerard Electric Lamp. 1 figure.

A New Reflecting Galvanometer. 3 figures.

IV. ART AND ARCHITECTURE. Groups of Statuary for the Pediment of the House of Parliament in Vienna. 2 engravings.

The Casino at Monte Carlo. An engraving.

V. PHYSICS. Determining the Density of the Earth. 1 figure.

Physics without Apparatus. The Porosity and Permeability of Bodies. A Hot Air Balloon. 2 engravings.

VI. NATURAL HISTORY. Winter and the Insects. An engraving.

Silk Worm Eggs. With engraving.

VII. HORTICULTURE. The Melleco. Ullucus tuberosa. With engraving.

VIII. PHYSIOLOGY, MEDICINE, ETC. Histological Methods. Section cutting machines. Methods of preserving the tissues. Preservative media. Preparation for mounting tissues. 1 figure.

Life History of a New Septic Organism.

Erythroxylon Coca as a Therapeutic Agent. By Dr. E.R. SQUIBB.


The Spanish Government is now engaged in supplying some of its principal fortifications with heavy guns of the most improved construction. The defenses of Cadiz and Ceuta have been greatly strengthened in this respect. The most recent additions are some very powerful Krupp guns for the fortress of Isabel II., at Mahon.


We give engravings from photographs, as presented in La Illustracion Española . These guns are breech loaders, of steel, 30½ centimeters caliber, or 12 inches, 49 tons weight.


One of our engravings shows the great revolving crane by which the guns were lifted and placed on the truck for conveyance over a track to their intended position. This crane is worked by eight men, and readily lifts burdens of about 200,000 lb. The other engraving shows the jack frame and jacks employed to remove the gun from the temporary truck. At a range of 7,000 yards these guns are able to penetrate iron plates of two feet thickness.

QUALITATIVE TESTS FOR STEEL RAILS... Continue reading book >>

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