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Scientific American Supplement, No. 443, June 28, 1884   By:

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NEW YORK, JUNE 28, 1884.

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XVII., No. 443.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.


I. CHEMISTRY AND METALLURGY. Beeswax and its Adulterations. Chemical ingredients. Detection of adulterations. 7064

Phenol in the Stem, Leaves, and Cones of Pinus Sylvestris. A discovery bearing on the flora of the Carboniferous epoch and the formation of petroleum. 7065

The School of Physics and Chemistry of Paris. With engraving of laboratory. 7065

Some Relations of Heat to Voltaic and Thermo Electric Action of Metals in Electrolysis. By G. GORE. 7070

II. ENGINEERING, MECHANICS, ETC. Air Refrigerating Machine. 5 figures. 7071

A Gas Radiator and Heater. 7071

Concrete Water Pipes. 7071

The Sellers Standard System of Screw Threads. Nuts, and Bolt Heads. A table. 7072

An English Railway Ferry Boat. 3 figures. 7072

The Problem of Flight and the Flying Machine. 7072

III. TECHNICAL. Concrete Buildings for Farms. How to construct them. 7063

What Causes Paint to Blister and Peel? How to prevent it. 7063

Olive Oil. Difficulties encountered in raising an olive crop. Process of making Oil. 7064

IV. ELECTRICITY. ETC. Telephony and Telegraphy on the Same Wires Simultaneously. 4 figures. 7067

The Electric Marigraph. An apparatus for measuring the height of the tide. With engravings and diagrams showing the Siemens and Halske marigraph and the operation of the same. 7068

Delune & Co.'s System of Laying Underground Cables. 2 figures. 7069

Electricity Applied to Horseshoeing. Quieting an unruly animal. 3 engravings. 7069

Esteve's Automatic Pile. 1 figure. 7070

Woodward's Diffusion Motor. 7070

V. ASTRONOMY. Lunar Heat. Its reflected and obscure heat. Trifling influence of the moon upon wind and weather. By Prof. C.A. YOUNG. 7073

VI. NATURAL HISTORY. The Long haired Pointer "Mylord." With engraving. 7073

VII. HORTICULTURE, ETC. Apple Tree Borers. Protection against the same. 7074

Keffel's Germinating Apparatus. With engraving. 7074

Millet. Its Cultivation. 7074

VIII. MISCELLANEOUS. Puerta del Sol, Madrid, Spain. With engraving. 7063

Dust free Spaces. A lecture delivered by Dr. OLIVER J. LODGE before the Royal Dublin Society. 7067


Puerta del Sol, or Gate of the Sun, Madrid, is the most famous and favorite public square in the Spanish city of Madrid. It was the eastern portal of the old city. From this square radiate several of the finest streets, such as Alcala, one of the handsomest thoroughfares in the world, Mayor, Martera, Carretas, Geronimo. In our engraving the post office is seen on the right... Continue reading book >>

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