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Scientific American Supplement, No. 433, April 19, 1884   By:

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NEW YORK, APRIL 19, 1884

Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XVII, No. 433.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.


I. CHEMISTRY, METALLURGY, ETC. New Analogy between Solids, Liquids, and Gases.

Hydrogen Amalgam.

Treatment of Ores by Electrolysis. By M. KILIANI.

II. ENGINEERING, AND MECHANICS. Electric Railway at Vienna. With engraving.

Instruction in Mechanical Engineering. Technical and trade education. A course of study sketched out. By Prof. R.H. THURSTON.

Improved Double Boiler. 3 figures.

The Gardner Machine Gun. With three engravings showing the single barrel, two barrel, and five barrel guns.

Climbing Tricycles.

Submarine Explorations. Voyage of the Talisman. The Thibaudier sounding apparatus. With map, diagrams, and engravings.

Jamieson's Cable Grapnel. With engraving.

A Threaded Set Collar.

III. TECHNOLOGY. Wretched Boiler Making.

Pneumatic Malting. With full description of the most improved methods and apparatus. Numerous figures.

Reducing and Enlarging Plaster Casts.

Stripping the Film from Gelatine Negatives.

IV. ELECTRICITY. Non sparking Key.

New Instruments for Measuring Electric Currents and Electromotive Force. By MESSRS. K.E. CROMPTON and GISBERT KAPP. Paper read before the Society of Telegraph Engineers. With several engravings.

When Does the Electric Shock Become Fatal?

V. ART AND ARCHÆOLOGY. Robert Cauer's Statute of Lorelei. With engraving.

The Pyramids of Meroe. With engraving.

VI. ASTRONOMY AND METEOROLOGY. The Red Sky. Cause of the same explained by the Department of Meteorology.

A Theory of Cometary Phenomena.


VII. NATURAL HISTORY. The Prolificness of the Oyster.

Coarse Food for Pigs.

VIII. BOTANY, HORTICULTURE, ETC. Forms of Ivy. With several engravings.

Propagating Roses.

A Few of the Best Inulas. With engraving.

Fruit Growing. By P.H. FOSTER.

IX. MEDICINE, HYGIENE, ETC. A People without Consumption, and Some Account of Their Country, the Cumberland Tableland. By E.M. WIGHT.

The Treatment of Habitual Constipation.

X. MISCELLANEOUS. The French Scientific Station at Cape Horn.

XI. BIOGRAPHY. The Late Maori Chief, Mete Kingi. With portrait.


In 1875 Lieutenant Weyprecht of the Austrian navy called the attention of scientific men to the desirability of having an organized and continual system of hourly meteorological and magnetic observations around the poles. In 1879 the first conference of what was termed the International Polar Congress was held at Hamburg. Delegates from eight nations were present Germany, Austria, Denmark, France, Holland, Norway, Russia, and Sweden.

The congress then settled upon a programme whose features were: 1. To establish general principles and fixed laws in regard to the pressure of the atmosphere, the distribution and variation of temperature, atmospheric currents, climatic characteristics. 2. To assist the prediction of the course and occurrence of storms. 3. To assist the study of the disturbances of the magnetic elements and their relations to the auroral light and sun spots. 4. To study the distribution of the magnetic force and its secular and other changes. 5. To study the distribution of heat and submarine currents in the polar regions. 6. To obtain certain dimensions in accord with recent methods... Continue reading book >>

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