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Scientific American Supplement, No. 470, January 3, 1885   By:

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Scientific American Supplement. Vol. XIX, No. 470.

Scientific American established 1845

Scientific American Supplement, $5 a year.

Scientific American and Supplement, $7 a year.


I. METALLURGY, CHEMISTRY, ETC. The Elasticity of Metals.

The Liquefaction of the Elementary Gases. By JULES JAMIN.

Examination of Fats.

Notes on Nitrification. By R. WARINGTON. Paper read before the British Association at Montreal.

II. ENGINEERING AND MECHANICS. Flow of Water through Hose Pipes.

Iron Pile Planks in the Construction of Foundations under Water. 3 engravings.

Sound Signals. Extracts from a paper by A.B. JOHNSON. Treating of gongs, guns, rockets, bells, whistling buoys, bell buoys, locomotive whistles, trumpets, the siren, and the use of natural orifices. 2 engravings.

Trevithick's High Pressure Engine at Crewe. 2 engravings.

Planetary Wheel Trains. By Prof. C.W. MACCORD. With a page and a half of illustrations.

Bridge over the River Indus, at Attock. Punjaub, Northern State Railway, India. Full page illustrations.

The Harrington Rotary Engine. 3 figures.

III. TECHNOLOGY. Testing Car Varnishes. By D.D. ROBERTSON.

Aniline Dyes in Dress Materials. By Prof. CHAS. O'NEILL.

IV. DECORATIVE ART. A. Chippendale Sideboard. With engraving.

V. PHYSICS, MAGNETISM, ETC. The Fallacy of the Present Theory of Sound. Abstract of a lecture by Dr. H.A. MOTT.

The Fixation of Magnetic Phantoms. With engraving.

VI. NATURAL HISTORY. Researches on the Origin and Life Histories of the Least and Lowest Living Things By Rev. W.H. DALLINGER.

VII. MEDICINE, ETC. Case of Resuscitation and Recovery after Apparent Death by Hanging. by Dr. E.W. WHITE.

VIII. MISCELLANEOUS. The Inventors' Institute. Address of the Chairman at the opening of the twenty second session of the Institute, October 2.

The New Central School at Paris. 3 engravings.


At a recent meeting in this city of the American Society of Civil Engineers, a paper by Edmund B. Weston was read, giving the description and result of experiments on the flow of water through a 2½ inch hose and through nozzles of various forms and sizes; also giving the results of experiments as to the height of jets of water. The experiments were made at Providence, R.I. The water was taken from a hydrant to the head of which were attached couplings holding two pressure gauges, and from the couplings the hose extended to a tank holding 2,100 gallons, so arranged as to measure accurately the time and amount of delivery of water by the hose. Different lengths of hose were used. The experiments resulted in the following formula for flow from coupling:

1. For hose between 90 and 100 feet in length, and where great accuracy is required:

/ 2gh V = / / / 0.504 \ \/ 1 0.0256d^{4} ( 0.0087 ) 0.12288d^{4}l. \ / \/ v

[TEX: V = \sqrt{\frac{2gh}{1 0.0256 d^4 (0.0087 \frac{0.504}{\sqrt{v}}) 0.12288 d^4 l}}.]

2. For all lengths of hose, a reliable general formula:

/ h V = / \/ 0.0155463 0.000398d^{4} 0.0000362962d^{4}l.

[TEX: V = \sqrt{\frac{h}{0.0155463 0.000398 d^4 0... Continue reading book >>

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